Australia and New Zealand

  • Marie R. KeatleyEmail author
  • Lynda E. Chambers
  • Rebecca Phillips


This chapter outlines the historical context of phenological observation and study in Australia and New Zealand. Details of early records are given as they provide a valuable baseline against which current phenology may be assessed. It also summarizes the results of phenological studies undertaken in recent years and identifies further long-term phenological data yet to be analysed. The information presented here begins to address the acknowledged lack of phenological studies undertaken in both countries. Community-based phenological networks and their contribution to the collection of phenological data are also described.


Traditional Ecological Knowledge Phenological Observation Phenological Study Breeding Timing Seasonal Calendar 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Rebecca Darbyshire, University of Melbourne for supplying the details of the apple, pear and peach data, Jennifer Gardner, Waite Arboretum, University of Adelaide for information on the flowering of eucalypts and ornamental plums at the Waite Arboretum, Fran MacGillivray, University of Adelaide for additional information on the ornamental plums, Peter Smith and Judy Smith of P. & J. Smith Ecological Consultants, for providing a copy of their paper prior to publication, Owen Bassett, Forest Solutions for an early copy of his report. We would also like to thank Amy Winnard, Bureau of Meteorology for assistance with sourcing many of the papers on New Zealand phenology as well as the Australian National Meteorological Library for their assistance in sourcing historical information. We would also like to thank Tim Fletcher, University of Melbourne, and Lesley Hughes, Macquarie University, and to the anonymous reviewer for providing helpful comments on the manuscript.


  1. Adams J (1883) On the botany of the Thames Goldfield. Trans N Z Inst XVI:385–393Google Scholar
  2. Allen RB, Platt KH (1999) Annual seedfall variation in Nothofagus solandri (Fagaceae), Canterbury, New Zealand. Oikos 57:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen WJ, Helps FW, Molles LE (2011) Factors affecting breeding success of the Flea Bay white-flippered penguin (Eudyptula minor albosignata) colony. N Z J Ecol 35:199–208Google Scholar
  4. Allen RB, Mason NWH, Richardson SJ, Platt KH (2012) Synchronicity, periodicity, and bimodality in inter-annual tree seed production along an elevation gradient. Oikos 121(2):367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anon (1856) Royal Society of Tasmania: annual general meeting. Colonial Times, p. 2Google Scholar
  6. Anon (1906) Field naturalists. The AdvertiserGoogle Scholar
  7. Anon (1949) Tasmanian naturalists co-operating in international survey. The Mercury, p. 8Google Scholar
  8. Anon (2011) Phenology records top 3000. Trilepidea: newsletter of the New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, vol 87. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. Atkins TA, Morgan ER (1989) Modelling the effects of possible climate change scenarios on the phenology of New Zealand fruit crops. In: Anderson JL (ed) Second international symposium on computer modelling in fruit research and Orchard Management, 5–8 Sept 1989. Logan, Utah, 1990. ISHS, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  10. Austin PT, Hall AJ (2001) Temperature impacts on development of apple fruits. In: Warrick RA, Kenny GJ, Harman JJ (eds) The effects of climate change and variation in New Zealand: an assessment Using the CLIMPACTS system. International Global Change Institute, The University of Waikato, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  11. Barlow ML, Dowding JE (2002) Breeding biology of Caspian terns (sterna caspia) at a colony near Invercargill, New Zealand. Notornis 49(2):78–90Google Scholar
  12. Bassett OD (in prep) Seed crop monitoring and assessment. Native forest silvicultural guidelines No 1. 2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  13. Beaumont LJ, McAllan IAW, Hughes L (2006) A matter of timing: changes in the first date of arrival and last date of departure of Australian migratory birds. Glob Chang Biol 12:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beuhne FR (1914) The Honey Flora of Victoria. J Dept Agric Vic XII(10):610–618Google Scholar
  15. Beveridge AE (1964) Dispersal and destruction of seed in central North Island Podocarp forests. Proc N Z Ecol Soc 11:48–56Google Scholar
  16. Beveridge AE (1973) Regeneration of Podocarps in a Central North Island Forest. N Z J For 18:23–35Google Scholar
  17. Boomsma CD (1972) Native trees of South Australia. Bulletin No 19. 1st edn. Woods and Forests Department, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  18. Briggs C (2008) The journey cycles of the Boonwurrung: stories with Boonwurrung language. Victorian Aboriginal Corporation for Languages, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  19. Bull CM, Burzacott D (2002) Changes in climate and in the timing of pairing of the Australian lizard, Tiliqua rugosa. J Zool Lond 256:383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bull PC, Flux JEC (2006) Breeding dates and productivity of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in Northern, central and Southern New Zealand. Notornis 53:208–214Google Scholar
  21. Bureau of Meteorology (1925) Australian meteorological observer's handbook. H.J. Green, Government Printer, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  22. Bureau of Meteorology (1954) Australian meteorological observers’ handbook. Commonwealth of Australia, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  23. Cannell B, Chambers LE, Wooller RD, Bradley JS (2012) Poorer breeding by Little Penguins near Perth, Western Australia is correlated with above average sea surface temperatures and a stronger Leeuwin Current. Mar Freshwater Res 63(10):914–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carron LT (1985) A history of forestry in Australia. Australian National University Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  25. Castellano MB (2000) Updating aboriginal traditions of knowledge. In: Sefa Dei GJ, Hall BL, Rosenburg DG (eds) Indigenous knowledges in global contexts. University of Toronto Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  26. Chambers LE (2005) Migration dates at Eyre bird observatory: links with climate change? Clim Res 29:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chambers LE (2008) Trends in timing of migration of south-western Australian birds and their relationship to climate. Emu 108:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chambers LE (2010) Altered timing of avian movements in a peri-urban environment and its relationship to climate. Emu 110:48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chambers LE, Keatley MR (2010a) Australian bird phenology – a search for climate signals. Aust Ecol 35(8):969–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chambers LE, Keatley MR (2010b) Phenology and climate – early Australian botanical records. Aust J Bot 58(6):473–484. doi: 10.1071/BT10105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chambers LE, Gibbs H, Weston MA, Ehmke GC (2008a) Spatial and temporal variation in the breeding of masked lapwings (Vanellus miles) in Australia. Emu 108:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chambers LE, Quin BR, Menkhorst P, Franklin DC, Smales I (2008b) The effects of climate on breeding in the Helmeted Honeyeater. Emu 108:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clark JE (1924) International co-operation in phenology. Nature 114:607–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clark JE (1925) International co-operation in phenological research. Nature 115(2895):602–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clarke B, Chance C (2003) Wisdom Man. Viking, CamberwellGoogle Scholar
  36. Cockayne L (1899) A sketch of the plant geography of the Waimakariri river basin, considered chiefly from an œcological point of view. Trans N Z Inst 32:95–136Google Scholar
  37. Commonwealth Meteorology (1907) Instructions to country observers. William Applegate Gullick, Government Printer, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  38. Craufurd PQ, Wheeler TR (2009) Climate change and the flowering time of annual crops. J Exp Bot 60:2529–2539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Crisp P (2010) Message from the President. Trilepidea: newsletter of the New Zealand plant conservation network, vol 79. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  40. Cullen JM, Chambers LE, Coutin PC, Dann P (2009) Predicting the onset and success of breeding of Little Penguins, Eudyptula minor, on Phillip Island from ocean temperatures off south east Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 378:269–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cunningham JM (1953) The dates of arrival of the Shining Cuckoo in New Zealand in 1952. Notornis 5(6):192–195Google Scholar
  42. Cunningham JM (1955) The dates of arrival of the Shining Cuckoo in New Zealand in 1953. Notornis 6(4):121–130Google Scholar
  43. Darbyshire R, Webb L, Goodwin L, Barlow EWR (2013) Evaluation of recent trends in Australian pome fruit spring phenology. Int J Biometeorol 57:409–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dawbin DH (1956) The migrations of the Humpback whale which pass the New Zealand coast. Trans R Soc N Z 84(1):147–196Google Scholar
  45. de Morton J, Bye J, Pezza A, Newbigin E (2011) On the causes of variability in amounts of airborne grass pollen in Melbourne, Australia. Int J Biometeorol 55:613–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Erickson R (1950) Flowering dates of orchids. West Aust Nat 2(3):72Google Scholar
  47. Evans KL, Tyler C, Blackburn TM, Duncan RP (2003) Changes in the breeding biology of the Welcome Swallow in New Zealand since colonisation. Emu 103:215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fell HB (1947) The migration of the New Zealand Bronze Cuckoo, Chalcites lucides lucides (Gmelin). Trans R Soc N Z 76(4):504–515Google Scholar
  49. Fleming C, Warham J (1985) Obituary: Launcelot Eric Richdale, O.B.E. (1900–1983). Emu 85(1):53–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. French CJ (1895) Observations on the flowering times and habitats of some Victorian orchids. Vic Nat 12:31–34Google Scholar
  51. Gallagher RV, Hughes L, Leishman MR (2009) Phenological trends among Australian alpine species: using herbarium records to identify climate-change indicators. Aust J Bot 57:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gentilli J (1949) Phenology – a new field for Australian naturalists. West Aust Nat 2(1):15–20Google Scholar
  53. Gibbens J, Arnould JPY (2009) Interannual variation in pup production and the timing of breeding in benthic foraging Australian fur seals. Mar Mamm Sci 25:573–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gibbs H (2007) Climatic variation and breeding in the Australian Magpie (Gymnorhina tibicen): a case study using existing data. Emu 107:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gibbs HM, Chambers LE, Bennett AF (2011) Temporal and spatial variability of breeding in Australian birds and the potential implications of climate change. Emu 111:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gillies AM, Hall R (1903) Nature studies in Australia with a natural history calendar, summaries of the chapters and complete index. Whitcombe & Tombs, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  57. Goldsworthy SD, McKenzie J, Shaughnessy PD, McIntosh RR, Page B, Campbell R (2009) An update of the report: understanding the impediments to the growth of Australian sea lion populations. Report to the Department for Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. SARDI research report series no. 356, West Beach, South AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  58. Gott B (2005) Aboriginal fire management in south-eastern Australia: aims and frequency. J Biogeogr 32(7):1203–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gould League of Victoria (1998) Timelines. Viridans Biological Databases, Brighton EastGoogle Scholar
  60. Green K (2010) Alpine taxa exhibit differing responses to climate warming in the Snowy Mountains of Australia. J Mt Sci 7(2):167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hall N (1978) Botanists of the eucalypts. CSIRO, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  62. Hannaford S (1856) Jottings in Australia: or, notes on the flora and fauna of Victoria. With a catalogue of the more common plants, their habitats and dates of flowering. James J Blundell & Co, MelbourneCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Haviland E (1886) Flowering seasons of Australian plants No 1. Proc Linn Soc N S W 1(11):1049Google Scholar
  64. Haviland E (1888) Flowering seasons of Australian plants No 8. Proc Linn Soc NSW 3:267–268Google Scholar
  65. Head L (1993) The value of long-term perspective: environmental history and traditional ecological knowledge. In: Williams NM, Baines G (eds) Traditional ecological knowledge: wisdom for sustainable development. CRES, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoogenraad R, Robertson GJ (1997) Seasonal calendars from central Australia. In: Webb EK (ed) Windows on meteorology: Australian perspective. CSIRO Publishing, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  67. International Meteorological Committee (1949) CAgM Toronto 1947: II phenological networks. In: Conference of directors: final report, Washington, DC, 1947. LausanneGoogle Scholar
  68. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007 – impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  70. Jameson G (2001) Timelines calendars: entering the landscape. In: Interpretation Australia Association (ed) Getting to the heart of it: connecting people with heritage. The ninth annual conference interpretation Australia Association, Alice Springs, 2001. Interpretation Australia Association, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
  71. Jarman HEA (1950) Proceedings of the annual congress of the Royal Australian Ornithological Union. Emu 49:238Google Scholar
  72. Kanangra (1949) New science would have us all watching birds. The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 November 1949Google Scholar
  73. Kearney MR, Briscoe NJ, Karoly DJ, Porter WP, Norgate M, Sunnucks P (2010) Early emergence in a butterfly causally linked to anthropogenic warming. Biol Lett – UK 6:674–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Keatley MR (2010) The first box of cherries. Paper presented at the Phenology 2010, Trinity College, DublinGoogle Scholar
  75. Keatley MR, Fletcher TD (2003) Phenological data, networks, and research: Australia. In: Schwartz MD (ed) Phenology: an integrative environmental science. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  76. Keatley MR, Hudson IL (2007) Shift in flowering dates of Australian plants related to climate: 1983–2006. In: Oxley L, Kulasiri D (eds) MODSIM 2007 international congress on modelling and simulation. Land, water and environmental management: integrated systems for Sustainability Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand. Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  77. Keatley MR, Hudson IL, Fletcher TD (1999) The use of long-term records for describing flowering behaviour: a case-study in Victorian Box-ironbark forests. In: Dargavel J, Wasser B (eds) Australia’s ever-changing forests IV. Australian University Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  78. Keatley MR, Fletcher TD, Hudson IL, Ades PK (2002) Phenological studies in Australia: potential application in historical and future climate analysis. Int J Clim 22(14):1769–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Keatley MR, Chambers LE, Martin RAU (2009) PhenoARC: an Australia-wide phenological data archive. Paper presented at the Greenhouse 2009: climate change and resources, Burswood convention centre, Perth, Western Australia, 23–26th MarchGoogle Scholar
  80. Kelly D, Harrison AL, Lee WG, Payton IJ, Wilson PR, Schauber EM (2000) Predator satiation and extreme mast seeding in 11 species of Chionochloa (Poaceae). Oikos 90:477–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kelly D, Turnbull MH, Pharis RP, Sarfati MS (2008) Mast seeding, predator satiation, and temperature cues in Chionochloa (Poaceae). Popul Ecol 50:343–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kingsley D (2003) The lost seasons. Accessed 10 Feb 2012
  83. Kumar S, Volz RK, Alspach PA, Bus VGM (2010) Development of a recurrent apple breeding programme in New Zealand: a synthesis of results, and a proposed revised breeding strategy. Euphytica 173:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Loneragan OW (1979) Karri (Eucalyptus diversicolor F. Muell.) phenological studies in relation to reforestation, vol Bulletin 90. Forest Department of Western Australia, PerthGoogle Scholar
  85. Low M, Pärt T, Forslund P (2007) Age-specific variation in reproduction is largely explained by the timing of territory establishment in the New Zealand Stitchbird Notiomystis cincta. J Anim Ecol 76:459–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. MacGillivray F, Hudson IL, Lowe AJ (2010) Herbarium collections and photographic images: alternative data sources for phenological research. In: Hudson IL, Keatley MR (eds) Phenological research: methods for environmental and climate change analysis. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  87. Mack AE (1909) A bush calendar. Angus and Robertson, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  88. Mack AE (1924) A bush calendar, 3rd edn. Cornstalk Publishing Company, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  89. Maiden JH (1909) A plea for the study of phenological phenomena in Australia. Proc R Soc NSW 43:157–170Google Scholar
  90. Maiden JH (1924) Phenology. A form of nature study, with very practical applications. Aust For J 7:4–7Google Scholar
  91. Malone MT (1994) Peach and nectarine breeding in New Zealand. Orchardist 67(10):16Google Scholar
  92. Mander C, Hay R, Powlesland R (1998) Monitoring and management of kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae). Department of conservation technical series; No. 15. Department of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  93. Maplestone C (1895a) Calendars and the indexing of natural history observations. Vic Nat 12(10):120–122Google Scholar
  94. Maplestone C (1895b) Flowering times of orchids. Vic Nat 12(7):82–83Google Scholar
  95. McClellan KE (2011) The responses of Australian butterflies to climate change. Macquarie University, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  96. McGlone M, Walker S (2011) Potential effects of climate change on New Zealand’s terrestrial biodiversity and policy recommendations for mitigation, adaptation and research. Dept. of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  97. McLachlan RG (1921) Victoria Valley experiences. Vic Bee J 2(6):64–65Google Scholar
  98. Menzel A, Sparks T (2006) Temperature and plant development: phenology and seasonality. In: Morison JIL, Morecroft MD (eds) Plant growth and climate change. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, AmesGoogle Scholar
  99. Menzel A, Sparks TH, Estrella N, Koch E, Aasa A, Ahas R, Alm-Kubler K, Bissolli P, Brasavská O, Briede A, Chmielewski F-M, Crepinsek Z, Curnel Y, Dahl A, Defila C, Donnelly A, Filella Y, Jatczak K, Mage F, Mestre A, Nordli Ø, Peñuelas J, Pirinen P, Remišová V, Scheifinger H, Striz M, Susnik A, van vliet AJH, Wielgolaski F-E, Zach S, Zust A (2006) European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob Chang Biol 12(10):1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mills JA (1973) The influence of age and pair-bond on the breeding biology of the red-billed gull Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus. J Anim Ecol 42:147–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mills AM (1979) Factors affecting the egg size of Red-billed gulls Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus. Ibis 121:53–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mills JA, Yarrall JW, Bradford-Grieve JM, Uddstrom MJ, Renwick JA, Merilä J (2008) The impact of climate fluctuation on food availability and reproductive performance on the planktivorous red-billed gull Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus. J Anim Ecol 77:1129–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Monks A (2007) Climatic prediction of seedfall in Nothofagus, Chionochloa and Dacrydium cupressinum. DOC research and development series 276. Dept. of Conservation, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  104. Nekovář J, Koch E, Kubin E, Nejedlik P, Sparks T, Wielgolaski F-E (eds) (2008) COST Action 725: the history and current status of plant phenology in Europe. Finnish forest research institute Muhos Research unit and COST office, Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  105. Newell J, Sutherland D (1997) Scientists and Colonists. Australas Sci 18(4):56Google Scholar
  106. Norton DA, Kelly D (1988) Mast seeding over 33 years by Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb. (Rimu) (Podocarpaceae) in New Zealand: the importance of economies of scale. Func Ecol 2:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Penglase, Armour J (1909) Victorian honeys and where they come from. Federal independent Beekeeper (March 1):2–4Google Scholar
  108. Petrie PR, Sadras VO (2008) Advancement of grapevine maturity in Australia between 1993 and 2006: putative causes, magnitude of trends and viticultural consequences. Aust J Grape Wine R 14:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ploughshare (1926) International phenology. The Mercury, 25 October 1926, p. 8Google Scholar
  110. Prince JE (1891) Phenology and rural biology. Vic Nat 8:119–127Google Scholar
  111. Pye DA, Dowding JE (2002) Nesting period of the northern New Zealand dotterel (Charadrius obscurus aquilonius). Notornis 49(4):259–260Google Scholar
  112. Reid AJ, Beckett A (1995) Banksias and Bilbies: seasons of Australia. Gould League of Victoria, MoorabbinGoogle Scholar
  113. Richdale LE (1942) Supplementary notes on the Royal Albatross. Emu 41:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Richdale LE (1950) Further notes on the erect-crested Penguin. Emu 49:153–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Richdale LE (1957) A population study of penguins. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  116. Riseth JA, Tømmervik H, Helander-Renvall E, Labba N, Johansson C, Malnes E, Bjerke JW, Jonsson C, Pohjola V, Sarri L-E, Schanche A, Callaghan TV (2011) Sámi traditional ecological knowledge as a guide to science: snow, ice and reindeer pasture facing climate change. Polar Rec 47:202–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rose D (2005) Rhythms, patterns, connectivities: indigenous concepts of seasons and change. In: Sherratt T, Griffiths T, Robin L (eds) A change in the weather: climate and culture in Australia. National Museum of Australia Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  118. Rosenzweig C, Casassa G, Karoly DJ, Imeson A, Liu C, Menzel A, Rawlins S, Root TL, Seguin B, Tryjanowski P (2007) Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  119. Rumpff L, Coates F, Morgan J (2010) Biological indicators of climate change: evidence from long-term flowering records of plants along the Victorian coast, Australia. Aust J Bot 58:428–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sadras VO, Petrie PR (2011) Climate shifts in south-eastern Australia: early maturity of Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon is associated with early onset rather than faster ripening. Aust J Grape Wine R 17:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Sakurai R, Jacobson SK, Koboric H, Primack R, Oka K, Komatsu N, Machida R (2011) Culture and climate change: Japanese cherry blossom festivals and stakeholders’ knowledge and attitudes about global climate change. Biol Conserv 144(1):654–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sedgwick EH (1947) Breeding of the Black and White Fantail. West Aust Nat 1(1):14–17Google Scholar
  123. Sedgwick EH (1949) Proceedings of the annual congress of the Royal Australian Ornithological Union, Perth 1948. Emu 48:177–211Google Scholar
  124. Sedgwick EH (1950) The Pallid Cuckoo in the south-west. West Aust Nat 2(5):119Google Scholar
  125. Sharwood (1935) The pollen content of the Melbourne air during the hay fever season of August 1933-March 1934. Med J Aust 1:326–332Google Scholar
  126. Smith P, Smith J (2012) Climate change and bird migration in south-eastern Australia. Emu 112(4):333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sparks TH, Croxton PJ, Collinson N, Taylor PW (2005) Examples of phenological change, past and present, in UK farming. Ann Appl Biol 146:531–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Steane SW (1931) Report of the forestry department for the year ended 30th June, 1930. Forestry Department, HobartGoogle Scholar
  129. Stevenson J, Haberle SG, Johnston FH, Bowman DMJS (2007) Seasonal distribution of pollen in the atmosphere of Darwin, tropical Australia: preliminary results. Grana 46:34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Surman CA, Nicholson LW (2009) The good, the bad and the ugly: ENSO driven oceanographic variability and its influence on seabird diet and reproductive performance at the Houtman Abrolhos, Eastern Indian Ocean. Mar Ornithol 37:129–138Google Scholar
  131. Tout SM (1935) Enquires on method of collection of data in regard to flowering and fruiting of native trees from Forestry Commission of New South Wales. Forest Commission of Victoria, Melbourne, Unpublished Correspondence in VPRS 11563/P/0001, File FCV 35/3123 HONEY, Location L/AZ/068/01/08, Public Records OfficeGoogle Scholar
  132. Tryjanonwski P, Flux JEC, Sparks TH (2006) Date of breeding of the starling Sturnus vulgaris in New Zealand is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation. Aust Ecol 31:634–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Wang JY (1967) Agricultural meteorology. Agriculture Weather Information Service, San JoseGoogle Scholar
  134. Waugh SM (1997) Laying dates, breeding success and annual breeding of Southern Royal Albatrosses Diomedea epomorphora epomorphora at Campbell Island during 1964–1969. Emu 97:194–199Google Scholar
  135. Webb LH, Whetton PH, Barlow EWR (2011) Observed trends in winegrape maturity in Australia. Glob Chang Biol 17(8):2707–2719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. White A (1988) Apple breeding in New Zealand. ISHS Acta Horticulturae 224:119–121Google Scholar
  137. Williams GR (1967) The breeding biology of California quail in New Zealand. Proc N Z Eco Soc 14:88–99Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie R. Keatley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lynda E. Chambers
    • 2
  • Rebecca Phillips
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Forest and Ecosystem ScienceUniversity of MelbourneCreswickAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Australian Weather and Climate ResearchBureau of MeteorologyMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Traditional Ecological Knowledge CoordinatorParks VictoriaMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations