• Tim H. SparksEmail author
  • Humphrey Q. P. Crick
  • Peter O. Dunn
  • Leonid V. Sokolov


There is a wealth of data on bird phenology, particularly on the timing of spring migration and the timing of breeding. Over the last decade or so there has emerged a large and growing literature examining changes in bird phenology and the likely causes of those changes. Here we give examples of changes in migration and breeding, with data originating from both amateur citizen science schemes and rigorously controlled schemes run by scientists. The overwhelming evidence is that spring migration and breeding have both got earlier. The likely cause of these changes is an increase in temperature, but other factors are also possible. Notwithstanding this general pattern it is also clear that responses are species-specific and may also vary from location to location.


Arrival Date Spring Migration Reed Warbler Barn Swallow White Stork 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim H. Sparks
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Humphrey Q. P. Crick
    • 4
  • Peter O. Dunn
    • 5
  • Leonid V. Sokolov
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of ZoologyPoznań University of Life SciencesPoznańPoland
  2. 2.Fachgebiet für Ökoklimatologie and Institute for Advanced StudyTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.SigmaCoventry UniversityCoventryUK
  4. 4.Natural EnglandPeterboroughUK
  5. 5.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA
  6. 6.Biological Station Rybachy, Zoological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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