Phenology at High Altitudes

  • David W. InouyeEmail author
  • Frans E. Wielgolaski


High-altitude climates, which strongly influence phenology, are determined by global, regional, and local processes and patterns. Phenology at high altitudes in the temperate zones is characterized by a short growing season that begins with snowmelt. As snowmelt is getting earlier, the phenology of most plants and many animal species is responding, but not uniformly. The fact that frost dates are not changing as quickly as snowmelt is resulting in large-scale frost damage in some years (at low altitudes too). The elevational gradients available in mountain regions offer the potential for observations and experimental studies that will improve our understanding of phenology as an important ecological trait. Relatively little is known about high-altitude phenology in the tropics, or about high-altitude animal phenology, and we are only beginning to understand the consequences of how phenological changes are influencing interactions among species.


High Altitude Alpine Plant Phenological Event North Pacific Oscillation Flowering Phenology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology and Rocky Mountain Biological LaboratoryUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of BioscienceUniversity of OsloOsloNorway

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