Phenology at High Latitudes

  • Frans E. WielgolaskiEmail author
  • David W. Inouye


Phenology, mainly on plants, in the Northern Hemisphere north of 60°N in the “Old” World and of 50°N in the “New” World is described in the present chapter, both historically and in modern times. Experiments, field work and satellite data are discussed. Phenological observations related to recent climate change at high latitudes are discussed in detail, and they are generally found to be good indicators of such changes during long-term studies. However, various organisms in the food chain, or sometimes even different individuals of the same species, do not react in exactly the same way on climate change. The response may also vary with the continentality of a region and with the time of the year. An increasing mismatch may be seen between production and consumption at various trophic levels both in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.


High Latitude North Atlantic Oscillation Frost Damage Mountain Birch Phenological Observation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioscienceUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Biology and Rocky Mountain Biological LaboratoryUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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