• Mark D. SchwartzEmail author


Phenology has been used as a proxy for climate and weather throughout human history particularly in relation to agriculture, but only within the last two centuries has it emerged as a science in its own right. Moreover, during the last half of the twentieth century the value of phenological science has been recognized as an integrative measure of plant and animal responses to climate and other environmental change that can be scaled from a local to a global level. Multiple examples, concepts, and applications of phenology have been systematically compiled to create this book. Together, they serve to reemphasize the valuable contribution of phenological research, in particular related to environmental change, to-date, and highlight the urgent need for more data collection, networks, and global collaborations in the future.


Phenological Data Global Change Research North American Grassland Clone Plant Species Regional Data Collection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA

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