Advertisement

Wetland Design and Development

Chapter

Abstract

The history of efforts to design and develop wetland sites is extensive and rich, especially in the United States. This chapter provides an annotated view of the current state of wetland design and recommends an approach to future efforts using “Hydrogeomorphic Methodology.” Experience over the past century indicates that the most important part of wetland design and development is upfront work to: (1) determine what type of wetland historically occurred in, and is appropriate for a site; (2) understand and attempt to emulate the key ecological processes that created and sustained specific wetland types; (3) compare historical landscapes and wetland attributes with contemporary landscape and site conditions to understand remediating needs; and (4) determine management objectives and capabilities. The foundation for hydrogeomorphic assessments is analysis of historical and current information about geology and geomorphology, soils, topography and elevation, hydrological regimes, plant and animal communities, and physical anthropogenic features. The availability of this information is discussed and the sequence of actions used to prepare hydrogeomorphic matrices of potential historical vegetation communities and maps is provided as in application of information. Specific considerations for designing wetland infrastructure and restoring wetland vegetation are reviewed. An example of a wetland restoration project for the Duck Creek Conservation Area, Missouri is provided to demonstrate use of the hydrogeomorphic approach. We believe that future wetland design and development strategies should include the following actions: (1) wetland conservation must seek to achieve incremental gains at landscape-level scales; (2) the foundation of wetland design is determining the appropriate wetland type for the site being considered; (3) wetland designs should seek to restore and emulate historical form and process as completely as possible and to make systems as self-sustainable as possible; and (4) future design and development of wetlands must anticipate change related to climate, land uses, encroachments, and water availability and rights.

Keywords

Vegetation Community Wetland Type Wetland Restoration Natural Resource Conservation Service Propagule Bank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Atlantic Waterfowl Council (1959) An illustrated small marsh construction manual based on design standards. Atlantic Waterfowl Technical Committee on Habitat Management and Development, Vermont Fish and Game Service, MontpelierGoogle Scholar
  2. Atlantic Waterfowl Council (1972) Techniques handbook of waterfowl habitat development and management, 2nd edn. Atlantic Flyway Council, Bethany BeachGoogle Scholar
  3. Autin WJ, Burns SF, Miller BJ, Saucier RT, Snead JI (1991) Quaternary geology in the lower Mississippi Valley. In: Morrison RB (ed) The geology of North America, vol K-2. Quaternary nonglacial geology: conterminous. The Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 547–582Google Scholar
  4. Baker HG (1989) Seed banks: general concepts and methodological issues. In: Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic, San Diego, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  5. Barbour MG, Billings WD (1991) North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Baskin JM, Baskin CC (1989) Physiology of dormancy and germination in relation to seed bank ecology. In: Leck MA, Parker VT, Simpson RL (eds) Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic, San Diego, pp 53–66Google Scholar
  7. Bedinger MS (1979) Relation between forest species and flooding. In: Greeson PC, Clark JR, Clark JE (eds) Wetland functions and values: the state of our understanding. American Water Resources Association Technical Publication 79–2, Minneapolis, MN, pp 427–435Google Scholar
  8. Bellrose FC, Paveglio FL Jr, Steffeck DW (1979) Waterfowl populations and the changing environment of the Illinois River Valley. Illinois Nat Hist Surv Bull 32:1–54Google Scholar
  9. Bellrose FC, Havera SP, Paveglio FL, Jr, Steffeck DW (1983) The fate of lakes in the Illinois River Valley. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes No. 119, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  10. Bettis EA, III, Anderson JD, Oliver JS (1996) Landform sediment assemblage (LSA) units in the Upper Mississippi River Valley, United States army corps of engineers, Rock Island district. Volume I. Illinois State Museum Research and Collections Center, Quaternary Studies Program Technical Report No. 95-1004-11b, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  11. Birdsell & Dean (1882) The history of Davies County, Missouri. Publisher unknown, Kansas CityGoogle Scholar
  12. Black RA (1984) Water relations of Quercus palustris: field measurements on an experimentally flooded stand. Oecologia 64:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bouma J (1991) Influence of soil macroporosity on environmental quality. Agronomy 46:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourdo EA Jr (1956) A review of the General Land Office Survey and its use in quantitative studies of former forests. Ecology 37:754–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brackenridge HM (1814) Views of Louisiana, together with a journal of a voyage up the Missouri River in 1811. Published by the author, PittsburghGoogle Scholar
  16. Brakhage GK (1964) Waterfowl management. Missouri Department of Conservation, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Brauer EJ, Busse DR, Davinroy RD, Gordon DC, Brown JL, Myers JE, Rhoads AM, Lamm D (2005) Geomorphology study of the Middle Mississippi River. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Applied River Engineering Center, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown M, Dinsmore JJ (1986) Implications of marsh size and isolation for marsh bird management. J Wildl Manage 50:392–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brugam RB, Patterson MJ (1996) Application of geographic information system to mapping presettlement vegetation in southwestern Illinois. Trans Ill State Acad Sci 89:112–125Google Scholar
  20. Bureau of Land Management (1989) Waterfowl habitat management on public lands: a strategy for the future. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  21. Cahoon DR, Groat CG (1990) A study of marsh management practice in coastal Louisiana, Volume II, technical description. Final report submitted to MMS, New Orleans, LA, OCS Study/MMS 90–0075Google Scholar
  22. Calderon FJ, Jackson LE, Scow KM, Rolston DE (2000) Microbial responses to simulated tillage in cultivated and uncultivated soils. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1547–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chabreck RA (1988) Coastal marshes, ecology and wildlife management. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  24. Collot V (1826) A journey in North America. Published for Arthur Bertrand, ParisGoogle Scholar
  25. Colton GW (1857) Maps of Missouri – Colton’s general atlas. J.H. Colton and Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Conner WH, Sharitz RR (2005) Forest communities of bottomlands. In: Fredrickson LH, King SL, Kaminski RM (eds) Ecology and management of bottomland hardwood systems: the state of our understanding. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory Special Publication No. 10, Puxico, MO, pp 93–120Google Scholar
  27. Connolly MB Jr, Heitmeyer ME (1992) Habitat conservation and the hunter. In: Posewitz J (ed) Proceedings of the Governor’s symposium on North America’s hunting heritage. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, pp 172–186Google Scholar
  28. Couzens MK (1861) Map of the Mississippi Valley. Lang and Laing LithGoogle Scholar
  29. Cronk JK, Fennessy MS (2001) Wetland plants: biology and ecology. Lewis Publishers, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Davinroy RD (2006) Sedimentation in the Upper Mississippi river basin. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Applied River Engineering Center, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis MA, Grime JP, Thompson K (2000) Fluctuating resources in plant communities: a general theory of invasibility. J Ecol 88:528–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Demissie M (1998) Hydrology of the Illinois river. Illinois State Water Survey, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  33. Douglass RS (1912) History of southeast Missouri, a narrative account of its historical progress, its people and its principal interests. Lewis Publishing Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Ducks Unlimited Canada (2000) Managing small wetlands for waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited Canada, AmherstGoogle Scholar
  35. Eckberg CJ, Foley WE (eds) (1980) An account of Upper Louisiana by Nicolas de Finiels. University of Missouri Press, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  36. Edwards MJ, Bailey EH, Geib WJ, Fudge JF, Butman B, Cook H (1927) Soil survey of Trempealeau County, Wisconsin. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Fischman RL, Adamcik RS (2011) Beyond trust species: the conservation potential of the National Wildlife Refuge System in the wake of climate change. Nat Resour J 51:1–33Google Scholar
  38. Forman G (1789) Forman’s journey down the Ohio and Mississippi. Draper’s editionGoogle Scholar
  39. Franklin SB, Wasklewicz T, Grubaugh JW, Greulich S (2003) Temporal periodicity of the Mississippi River before and after systemic channel modifications. J Am Water Resour Assoc 39:637–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fredrickson LH (1991). Strategies for water level manipulations in moist-soil systems. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Leaflet 13.4.6Google Scholar
  41. Fredrickson LH, Batema DL (1992) Greentree reservoir management handbook. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory, PuxicoGoogle Scholar
  42. Fredrickson LH, Laubhan MK (2000) Managing wetlands for wildlife. In: Braun CE (ed) Techniques for wildlife investigations and management, 5th edn. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, pp 623–647Google Scholar
  43. Fredrickson LH, Taylor TS (1982) Management of seasonally flooded impoundments for wildlife. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication 148Google Scholar
  44. Fuentes JP, Flury M, Bezdicek DF (2004) Hydraulic properties in a silt loam soil under natural prairie, conventional till, and no till. Soil Sci Soc Am J 68:1679–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fuller R, Cofer-Shabica N (2011) Marshes on the move – a managers guide to understanding and using model results depicting impacts of sea level rise on coastal wetlands. The Nature Conservancy Global Marine Team and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service Coastal Services Center, white paperGoogle Scholar
  46. Galat DL, Fredrickson LH, Humburg DD, Bataille KJ, Bode JR, Dohrenwend J, Gelwicks GT, Havel HE, Helmers DL, Hooker JB, Jones JR, Knowlton MF, Kubisiak J, Mazourek J, McColpin AC, Renken RB, Semlitsch RD (1998) Flooding to restore connectivity of regulated, large-river wetlands. Bioscience 48:721–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Galatowitsch SM, van der Valk AG (1994) Restoring prairie wetlands – an ecological approach. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  48. Gardner G (2006) Golden anniversary wetland initiative. MO Conserv 67(3):8–15Google Scholar
  49. Hajic ER (2000) Landform sediment assemblage (LSA) units in the Illinois River Valley and the Lower Des Plaines River Valley, vol I and II. Technical report No. 99-1255-16. Illinois State Museum, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  50. Hammer DA (1992) Creating freshwater wetlands. Lewis Publishers, Inc., ChelseaGoogle Scholar
  51. Hammond MC, Lacy CH (1959) Artificial potholes and ditches as waterfowl habitat. 21st Midwest wildlife conference, Minneapolis (mimeo)Google Scholar
  52. Havera SP, Roat KE, Anderson LL (2003) The Thompson Lake/Emiquon story: the biology, drainage, and restoration of an Illinois River bottomland lake. Illinois Natural History Survey, Special publication No. 25, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  53. Heitmeyer ME (2007a) Conserving lacustrine and palustrine natural communities. Mo Nat Areas Newsl 5(1):3–5Google Scholar
  54. Heitmeyer ME (2007b) Feasibility investigation hydrogeomorphic modeling and analyses Upper Mississippi River System floodplain. Greenbrier Wetland Services report No. 07–01. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  55. Heitmeyer ME (2008a) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for the Ted Shanks Conservation Area. Greenbrier Wetland Services report No. 08–03. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  56. Heitmeyer ME (2008b) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration options for the Middle Mississippi River Regional Corridor. Greenbrier Wetland Services report No. 08–02. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  57. Heitmeyer ME (2010a) An assessment of historic land cover for the St. John’s Bayou Basin New Madrid Floodway region. Greenbrier Wetland Services report No. 10–05 Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  58. Heitmeyer ME (2010b) An evaluation of terrestrial ecosystem restoration options for the Chippewa River ecoregion of the Upper Mississippi River System. Greenbrier Wetland Services report No. 10–06. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  59. Heitmeyer ME, Fredrickson LH (2005) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for the Ouray National Wildlife Refuge, Utah. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory Special Publication No. 8, Puxico, MOGoogle Scholar
  60. Heitmeyer ME, Westphall K (2007) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for the Calhoun and Gilbert Lake Divisions of Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory Special Publication No. 13, Puxico, MOGoogle Scholar
  61. Heitmeyer ME, Fredrickson LH, Krause GF (1989) Water and habitat dynamics of the Mingo Swamp in southeastern Missouri. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish and Wildlife Research No. 6, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  62. Heitmeyer ME, Fredrickson LH, Krause GF (1991) Water relationships among wetland habitat types in the Mingo Swamp, Missouri. Wetlands 11:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heitmeyer ME, Caldwell PJ, Batt BDJ, Nelson JW (1996) Waterfowl conservation and biodiversity in North America. In: Ratti JT (ed) 7th international waterfowl symposium, Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Memphis, pp 125–138Google Scholar
  64. Heitmeyer ME, Fredrickson LH, King SL (2000) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration options for the Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory Special Publication, Puxico, MOGoogle Scholar
  65. Heitmeyer ME, Nelson FA, Fredrickson LH (2006) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for the Duck Creek/Mingo Basin area of southeast Missouri. University of Missouri-Columbia, Gaylord Memorial Laboratory Special Publication No. 12, Puxico, MOGoogle Scholar
  66. Heitmeyer ME, Artmann MJ, Fredrickson LH (2009) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 09–01. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  67. Heitmeyer ME, Artmann MJ, Fredrickson LH (2010a) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for Lee Metcalf National Wildlife Refuge. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 10–02. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  68. Heitmeyer ME, Lemons E, Jackson J (2010b) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for St. Francis River floodplain lands at Wappapello Lake, Missouri. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 10–03. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  69. Heitmeyer ME, Nigh TA, Mengel DC, Blanchard PE, Nelson FA (2011) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for floodplains in the Lower Grand River Region Missouri. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 11–01. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  70. Heitmeyer ME, Henry AR, Artmann MJ (2012a) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 12–03. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  71. Heitmeyer ME, Esser RL, Eash JD, Newman BJ (2012b) An evaluation of ecosystem restoration and management options for Hamden Slough National Wildlife Refuge. Greenbrier Wetland Services Report No. 12–02. Blue Heron Conservation Design and Printing, LLC, BloomfieldGoogle Scholar
  72. Houck L (1908) A history of Missouri from the earliest explorations and settlements until the admission of the state into the union, 4 vols. R.R. Donnelley and Sons Co, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  73. Hus H (1908) An ecological cross-section of the Mississippi River in the region of St. Louis, MO. Mo Bot Gardens 19:127–258Google Scholar
  74. Hutchins T (1784) In: Tregle JG Jr (ed) A historical and topographical description of Louisiana and West Florida, Facsimile edition. University of Florida Press, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
  75. Hutchinson M (1988) A guide to understanding, interpreting, and using public land survey field notes in Illinois. Nat Areas J 8:245–255Google Scholar
  76. Johnson LE, Padilla DK (1996) Geographic spread of exotic species: ecological lessons and opportunities from the invasion of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Biol Conserv 78:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Keeley JE (1979) Population differentiation along a flood frequency gradient: physiological adaptations to flooding in Nyssa sylvatica. Ecol Monogr 49:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kelley JR, Jr, Laubhan MK, Reid FA, Wortham JS, Fredrickson LH (1993) Options for water-level control in developed wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Leaflet 13.4.8Google Scholar
  79. Klimas C, Murray E, Foti T, Pagan J, Williamson M, Langston H (2009) An ecosystem restoration model for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley based on geomorphology, soils, and hydrology. Wetlands 29:430–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Korschgen LJ, Toney TE (1978) An ecological inventory of indigenous plants on the Ted Shanks Wildlife Area. Job completion report, Federal Aid Project W-13-R-30. Missouri Department of Conservation, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  81. Kulmatiski A, Beard KH, Stark JM (2006) Soil history as a primary control on plant invasion in abandoned agricultural fields. J Appl Ecol 43:8868–8876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kusler JA, Kentula ME (eds) (1990) Wetland creation and restoration: the status of science. Island Press, CoveloGoogle Scholar
  83. Large P, Goddard D, Landau H (2001). eRTK: a new generation of solutions for centimeter-accurate wide-area real-time positioning. Trimble Navigation LimitedGoogle Scholar
  84. Laubhan MK, Fredrickson LH (1993) Integrated wetland management: concepts and opportunities. Trans North Am Wildl Nat Resour Conf 58:323–333Google Scholar
  85. Laubhan MK, King SL, Fredrickson LH (2005) Managing inland wetlands for wildlife. In: Braun CE (ed) Techniques for wildlife investigations and management, 6th edn. The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, pp 797–838Google Scholar
  86. Linde AF (1969) Techniques for wetland management. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources research report No. 45, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  87. Lubinski K (1993) A conceptual model of the Upper Mississippi River System ecosystem. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Environmental Management technical center report EMTC 93-T0001, Onalaska, WIGoogle Scholar
  88. Luckey RR, Becker MF (1999) Hydrogeology, water use, and simulation of flow in the high plains aquifer in northwestern Oklahoma, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, northeastern New Mexico, and northwestern Texas. U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources investigations report 99–4104Google Scholar
  89. Madigan T, Schirmer RC (1998) Geomorphological mapping and archaeological sites of the Upper Mississippi River Valley, Navigation Pools 1–10, Minneapolis, Minnesota to Guttenberg, Iowa. IMA Consulting, Inc., Reports of Investigation No. 5r22. Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Paul DistrictGoogle Scholar
  90. Massey B (2000) Wetland engineering manual. Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Southern Regional Office, MSGoogle Scholar
  91. Mathiak HA (1965) Pothole blasting for wildlife. Wisconsin Department of Conservation Publication 352, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  92. Meretsky VJ, Fischman RL, Karr JR, Ashe DM, Scott JM, Noss RF, Schroeder RL (2006) New directions in conservation for the National Wildlife Refuge System. BioScience 56:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Messing I, Jarvis NJ (1993) Temporal variation in the hydraulic conductivity of a tilled clay soil as measured by tension infiltrometers. J Soil Sci 44:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Middleton B (1999) Wetland restoration – flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller RM (1997) Prairie underground. In: Packard S, Mutel CF (eds) The tall grass restoration handbook for prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Island Press, New York, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  96. Miller AW, Arend PH (1960) How to grow watergrass for ducks in California. California Department of Fish and Game, Game management leaflet No. 1, Sacramento, CAGoogle Scholar
  97. Minton WM (1912) The Mississippi River Dam at Keokuk, Iowa. Harv Eng J 10:180–191Google Scholar
  98. Mississippi Flyway Council (1958) A guide to Mississippi Flyway Waterfowl Management. Mississippi Flyway CouncilGoogle Scholar
  99. Mississippi River Commission (1881) Detail map of the Upper Mississippi River from the mouth of the Ohio River to Minneapolis. Minnesota in 89 sheetsGoogle Scholar
  100. Missouri Natural Areas Committee (1996) Directory of Missouri natural areas. Missouri Department of Conservation, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, U.S. Forest Service, and National Park Service, Jefferson CityGoogle Scholar
  101. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (1986) Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  102. More Game Birds in America Foundation (1931) More waterfowl. More Game Birds in America Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Mueller MH, van der Valk AG (2002) The potential role of ducks in wetland seed dispersal. Wetlands 22:170–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Munson PJ (1974) Terraces, meander loops, and archaeology in the American Bottoms, Illinois. Trans Ill State Acad Sci 67:384–392Google Scholar
  105. Murkin HR, van der Valk AG, Clark WR (eds) (2000) Prairie wetland ecology – the contribution of the Marsh Ecology Research Program. Iowa State University Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  106. Nassar JR, Cohen WE, Hopkins CR (1993) Waterfowl habitat management handbook for the lower Mississippi River Valley. Extension Service of Mississippi State University, StarkvilleGoogle Scholar
  107. Nelson PW (2005) Terrestrial natural communities of Missouri, revised edition. Missouri Natural Areas Committee. Published by Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Jefferson CityGoogle Scholar
  108. Nelson JC, Sparks RE, DeHaan L, Robinson L (1998) Presettlement and contemporary vegetation patterns along two navigational reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. In: Sisk TD (ed) Perspectives on the land use history of North America: a context for understanding our changing environment. U.S. Geological Survey Biological Report USGS/BRD/BSR – 1998–0003, pp 51–60Google Scholar
  109. Nestler JM, Theiling CH, Lubinski KS, Smith DL (2010) Reference condition approach to restoration planning. River Research Applications (2010). Published online in Wiley Inter Science. www.interscience.wiley.com. doi:10:1002/rra.1330
  110. Nigh TA, Schroeder WA (2002) Atlas of Missouri ecoregions. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson CityGoogle Scholar
  111. Nimick DA (1997) Hydrology and water chemistry of the Benton Lake Basin with emphasis on the fate of dissolved solids at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 97–4100Google Scholar
  112. Nuttall T (1813) Fraser’s catalogue – a catalogue of new and interesting plants collected in Upper Louisiana and principally on the River Missouri, North America. London. (reprinted in Pittonia 2:114–119. 1889)Google Scholar
  113. Ogilvie LP (1967) The development of the southeast Missouri Lowland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Missouri, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  114. Pacific Flyway Council (1959) Pacific flyway waterfowl management guide. Pacific Flyway Council, PortlandGoogle Scholar
  115. Payne NF (1992) Techniques for wildlife habitat management of wetlands. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Piehl JL (ed) (1986) Proceedings wetland restoration a techniques workshop. Minnesota Chapter of the Wildlife Society, Fergus FallsGoogle Scholar
  117. Reiger JF (1975) American sportsmen and the origins of conservation. University of Oklahoma Press, NormanGoogle Scholar
  118. Reynolds HL, Packer A, Bever JD, Clay K (2003) Grassroots ecology: plant-microbe-soil interactions of plant community structure and dynamics. Ecology 84:2281–2291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ringleman JK (1991) Evaluating and managing waterfowl habitat – a general reference on the biological requirements and management of ducks and geese common to Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife Report no. 16Google Scholar
  120. Samson FB (1996) Integration of landscape principles into waterfowl conservation. In: Ratti JT (ed) Seventh international waterfowl symposium. Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Memphis, pp 117–124Google Scholar
  121. Sanderson GC (1980) Conservation of waterfowl. In: Bellrose FC (ed) Ducks, geese and swans of North America, 3rd edn. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, pp 43–58Google Scholar
  122. Saucier RT (1994) Geomorphology and quaternary geological history of the Lower Mississippi Valley, vol I and II. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, U.S. Department of the Army, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  123. Schoolcraft HR (1825) Travels in the central portions of the Mississippi Valley. Collins and Hannay, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Schulte LA, Mladenoff DJ (2001) The original U.S. Public Land Survey records: their use and limitations in reconstructing presettlement vegetation. J For 99:5–10Google Scholar
  125. Sickley TA, Mladenoff DJ (2007) Pre-Euroamerican settlement vegetation data-base for the Upper Mississippi River Valley. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, University of Wisconsin-Madison report to The Nature Conservancy, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  126. Smith LM, Smith FL (1984) Engineering geology of selected areas, U.S. Army Corps of Engineer Division, Lower Mississippi Valley, Report 1, vol 1, the American Bottom area, MO-IL. U.S. Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MSGoogle Scholar
  127. Smith LM, Pederson RL, Kaminski RM (1989) Habitat management for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America. Texas Tech University Press, LubbockGoogle Scholar
  128. Soileau RS (2002) Inventory of hydrographic survey and cross-section data available on the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois Waterway at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer Districts, St. Paul, Rock Island and St Louis. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  129. Sophocleous MA (1992) Steam-aquifer modeling of the lower Rattlesnake Creek Basin with emphasis on the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge. Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report 92–10Google Scholar
  130. Sparks RE (1993) Making predictions that change the future forecasts and alternative visions for the Illinois River. In: Kobab H (ed) Proceedings of the third biennial Governor’s conference on the management of the Illinois River system, Peoria, ILGoogle Scholar
  131. Sparks RE (1995) Need for ecosystem management of large rivers and their floodplains. BioScience 45:168–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Strader RW, Stinson PH (2005) Moist-soil management guidelines for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Southeast region. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Field Office, JacksonGoogle Scholar
  133. Stratman D, Barickman G (2000) Using micro and macrotopography in wetland restoration. U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, Illinois Biology Technical Note No. 20Google Scholar
  134. Symstad AJ (2000) A test of the effects of functional group richness and composition on grassland invasibility. Ecology 81:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Theiling CH, Bettis EA III, Heitmeyer ME (2012) Hydro-geomorphic classification and potential vegetation mapping for Upper Mississippi River bottomland restoration. In: Piacentini T, MIccadei E (eds) Studies on environmental and applied geomorphology. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  136. Thompson K (1992) The functional ecology of seed banks. In: Fenner M (ed) Seeds. The ecology of regeneration in plant communities. Cab International, Wallingford, pp 231–258Google Scholar
  137. Thurman MD (1982) Cartography of the Illinois Country: an analysis of the Middle Mississippi maps drawn during the British regime. J Ill State Hist Soc 75:277–288Google Scholar
  138. Trimble Navigation Limited (2008) Trimble: the construction technology authority. http://www.trimble-productivity.com/articles/95?page=3
  139. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1979) Final recommendations on the management of the national wildlife refuge system. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  140. U.S. Geological Survey (1999) Ecological status and trends of the Upper Mississippi River system 1998: a report of the long term resource monitoring program. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, LTRMP 99-T0001, La Crosse, WIGoogle Scholar
  141. U.S. Soil Conservation Service (1992) Wetland restoration, enhancement, or creation. Engineer field handbook No. 13. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  142. Van der Valk AG (1981) Succession in wetlands: a Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62:688–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Vileisis A (1997) Discovering the unknown landscape – a history of America’s wetlands. Island Press, CoveloGoogle Scholar
  144. Vinton MA, Goergen EM (2006) Plant-soil feedbacks contribute to the persistence of Bromus inermis in tallgrass prairie. Ecosystems 9:967–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Warren GK (1869) Map of the Mississippi River from the junction of the Minnesota to the junction of the Ohio River, 22 sheets. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Lacrosse, WIGoogle Scholar
  146. Weller MW (1989) Waterfowl management techniques for wetland enhancement, restoration and creation useful in mitigation procedures. In: Kusler J, Kentula M (eds) Wetland creation and restoration, vol 2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 105–116Google Scholar
  147. Weller MW (1994) Freshwater marshes – ecology and wildlife management, 3rd edn. University of Minnesota Press, MinneapolisGoogle Scholar
  148. WEST Consultants, Inc (2000) Upper Mississippi River and Illinois waterway cumulative effects study, vol I and II. Geomorphic assessment and ecological assessment. Final report prepared for Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Rock Island DistrictGoogle Scholar
  149. Wharton CH, Kitchens WM, Pendleton EC, Sipe TW (1982) The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps in the southeast: a community profile. FWS/OBS – 81/37, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Services Program, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  150. White J (2000) Early accounts of the ecology of the Big Rivers area, vol 5. Illinois critical trends assessment program. Illinois Department of Natural Resources, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  151. Wiener JG, Sandheinrich MR (2010) Contaminants in the Upper Mississippi River: historic trends, responses to regulatory controls, and emerging concerns. Hydrobiologia 640:49–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Willman HB (1973) Geology along the Illinois Waterway – a basis for environmental planning. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 478Google Scholar
  153. Woerner EG, Dunbar JE, Villanueva E, Smith LM (2003) Geologic investigation of the Middle Mississippi River. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center ERDC/GSL TR-03-7, VicksburgGoogle Scholar
  154. Yin Y, Nelson J (1996) Modifications of the Upper Mississippi River and the effects on floodplain forests. In: Galat DL, Frazier AG (eds) Overviews of river-floodplain ecology in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, vol 3, Science for floodplain management into the 21st century. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 29–40Google Scholar
  155. Zimmerman JL (1990) Cheyenne Bottoms – wetland in jeopardy. University of Kansas Press, LawrenceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Greenbrier Wetland ServicesAdvanceUSA
  2. 2.Wetland Management and Education ServicesPuxicoUSA
  3. 3.Environmental Services SectionU.S. Fish and Wildlife ServicePrattUSA
  4. 4.Missouri Department of ConservationJacksonUSA
  5. 5.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, West Tennessee National Wildlife Refuges ComplexDyersburgUSA
  6. 6.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Neal Smith NWRPrairie CityUSA
  7. 7.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Denver Federal CenterDenverUSA

Personalised recommendations