Elements of Demographic Analysis

  • Farhat Yusuf
  • Jo. M. Martins
  • David A. Swanson


This chapter opens with the description and enunciation of one of the basic population models: the balancing equation. This is used to introduce and elaborate the concepts of demographic stocks and flows. Methods of estimating population growth rates are given and interpolation and extrapolation are discussed. Examples of the application of these methods are given. Different types of crude rates are defined such as the crude birth, death and migration rates. As in the previous and following cases application of these measures are shown with data from a variety of countries. This is followed by an explanation of cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches in demography and the use of related synthetic measures, and why some rates are labelled as crude. Rates related to certain characteristics of the individuals are specified. For example, sex ratios at birth and given ages, child to woman, child to old and dependency ratios. The measurement of population density and distribution is shown. In addition, the estimation of indexes of redistribution and concentration is illustrated. Standardisation techniques are presented, in the context of the direct and indirect methods. Graphic representation of demographic data is featured with the use of population pyramids.


Population Growth Rate Dependency Ratio Crude Death Rate Standard Population Crude Rate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhat Yusuf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jo. M. Martins
    • 2
  • David A. Swanson
    • 3
  1. 1.Menzies Centre for Health Policy Sydney School of Public HealthThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Marketing and Management Faculty of Business and EconomicsMacquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Sociology College of Humanities, Arts and Social SciencesUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

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