Some Basic Statistical Measures

  • Farhat Yusuf
  • Jo. M. Martins
  • David A. Swanson


This chapter introduces some basic statistical measures which are commonly used in demographic analysis. This starts with the estimation of proportions, percentages, rates and ratios. It progresses on to some measures of central tendency, such as various types of averages including the arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means. Particular properties and distinguishing features of the three types of means are examined. Other measures discussed include median and mode and how they are estimated and interpreted. Measures of dispersion such as the variance and standard deviation are also discussed, along with various measures of concentration including quartiles, quintiles, deciles and percentiles. Indexes of dissimilarity and relative difference are considered along with the Gini coefficient. Finally, the concepts of regression and correlation are introduced.


Income Group Multiple Regression Model Gini Coefficient Median Group Cumulative Frequency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anscombe, E. (1973). Graphs in statistical analysis. The American Statistician, 27, 17–22.Google Scholar
  2. Australia. (2010). 2009 births Australia. Catalogue no. 3301.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.$File/33010_2009.pdf. Accessed Feb 2013.
  3. Fox, J. (1991). Regression diagnostics (Quantitative applications in the social sciences, Vol. 79). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  4. James, R. D., & Taeuber, K. (1985). Measures of segregation. Sociological Methodology, 15, 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Japan. (2011). e-Stat. Portal site of official statistics of Japan. 2000 population census, labour force status of population (Table 1). Accessed Feb 2013.
  6. Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. (1988). The dimensions of racial segregation. Social Forces, 67(2), 281–315.Google Scholar
  7. Stevens, S. S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement. Science, 103(2684), 677–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Swanson, D. A. (2004). Advancing methodological knowledge within state and local demography: A case study. Population Research and Policy Review, 23, 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Triola, M. F. (2007). Elementary statistics using excel (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  10. United Kingdom. (2008). Family spending, 2007 edition. Newport: Palgrave Macmillan. Accessed Feb 2013.
  11. United Nations. (2009). Demographic yearbook, 2007. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Accessed Feb 2013.
  12. United Nations. (2011). Demographic yearbook, 2009–2010. New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Accessed Feb 2013.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Farhat Yusuf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jo. M. Martins
    • 2
  • David A. Swanson
    • 3
  1. 1.Menzies Centre for Health Policy Sydney School of Public HealthThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Marketing and Management Faculty of Business and EconomicsMacquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Sociology College of Humanities, Arts and Social SciencesUniversity of California RiversideRiversideUSA

Personalised recommendations