New Energy Sources and CO2 Treatment

Chapter
Part of the Integrated Science & Technology Program book series (ISTP, volume 2)

Abstract

The conversion of CO2 through the use of renewable energy sources offers new possibilities to develop innovative new approaches to improve sustainability of chemical and energy production. After introducing the topic, this chapter discusses the reuse of CO2 as a valuable carbon source and an effective way to introduce renewable energy in the chemical industry value chain, to improve resource efficiency, and to limit greenhouse gas emissions. The specific challenge of using CO2 for the production of light olefins (ethylene, propylene) is discussed. The recycling of CO2 back to fuels using sunlight (solar fuels) is also briefly analyzed to demonstrate a relevant opportunity to develop effective energy vectors for the storage of solar energy integrated into the existing energy infrastructure and allowing a smooth but fast transition to a more sustainable energy future. The role of these topics for the future strategies of chemical and energy industries, especially in terms of resource efficiency, is also highlighted.

Keywords

CO2 valorization Renewable energy Solar fuels Olefin from CO2 Sustainable chemistry and energy Resource efficiency 

List of Acronyms

ATP

Adénosinetriphosphate

BUA

Business as usual

C2, C3…

Hydrocarbons with two or with three atoms of carbon

>C1 (>C5)

Hydrocarbons, or alcohol with more than one (5) atom(s) of carbon

CCR

Carbon capture and recycling

CCS

Carbon capture and sequestration

DME

Dimethylether

DNV

Det Norske Veritas, company involved in CCS and in ERC research

DoE

US Department of Energy

DR

Dry reforming

EJ

Exajoule (1 EJ = 1018 J)

ERC

Electrochemical reduction of CO2

FT

Fischer–Tropsch

GHG

Greenhouse gas

Gt/y

Gigaton per year

Gteq CO2

Gigaton of equivalent CO2

Gtoe

Gigaton of oil equivalent

GW

Gigawatt (= 109 W)

IEA

International Energy Agency

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LCA

Life-cycle assessment

MTG

Methanol-to-gasoline

MtCO2/y

Megaton CO2 per year

Mt/y

Megaton per year

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

PEM electrolyzer

Proton electrolyte membrane electrolyzer

PV

Photovoltaic

RCO2 AS

RCO2 AS is a small research company located in Norway, developing technologies for recycling CO2

RE

Renewable energy

rWGS

Reversewater gas shift

SNG

Substituted natural gas

SOEC

Solid oxide electrolysis cells

TPES

Global total primary energy supply

TW

Terawatt (= 1012 W)

UCLA

University of California, Los Angeles

UNFCCC

United Framework Convention on Climate Change

ZSM-5

Zeolite Socony Mobil – 5

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei MaterialiUniversity of Messina and INSTM/CASPEMessinaItaly

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