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CO2 Capture Transport and Storage, a Promising Technology for Limiting Climate Change

  • Christian Fouillac
Chapter
Part of the Integrated Science & Technology Program book series (ISTP, volume 2)

Abstract

On a world-scale basis, fossil fuels are likely to remain the main sources for electricity generation in the twenty-first century, and many industrial processes that are also large CO2 emitters will still be active for many decades. Therefore, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is generally considered a necessary option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This chapter introduces the concept, which consists in the separation of CO2 from energy-related and industrial gas streams, and its transport to a geological storage location where it is permanently and safely stored. The characteristics of the main capture processes: postcombustion, oxycombustion, and precombustion are summarized in terms of energy consumption and costs. Some other possible technological options are briefly described. The methods utilized for CO2 transport are also presented with some cost estimates. The main formation for geological storage—depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline aquifers, and nonexploitable coal seams—are briefly described, with the mechanisms involved in storage operations. Storage capacity evaluations, methodologies for risk assessment and management, are also briefly summarized. The chapter discusses the 14 large-scale integrated CCS projects which are in operation or under construction today, with a rough total storage capacity of 33 million tons a year. This could indicate that provided public awareness, social acceptance, and economic drivers evolve favorably, CCS could play a very significant role in the transition to a future low emission energy use.

Keywords

CO2 capture Geological storage Implementation costs Risk assessment 

List of Acronyms

ASU

Air separation unit

CCS

Carbon capture and storage

CDM

Clean development mechanism

COP

Conference of the Parties

CSLF

Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum

DOGF

Depleted oil and gas fields

ECBM

Enhanced coalbed methane

EGR

Enhanced gas recovery

EOR

Enhanced oil recovery

ETS

Emission trading scheme

EU

European Union

GHG

Greenhouse gas

IEA

International Energy Agency

IGCC

Integrated gasification combined cycle

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

LNG

Liquefied natural gas

MIT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MMV

Measure monitoring and verification

MPa

MegaPascal (1 MPa = 106 Pa)

Mt

Megaton (1 Mt = 106 ton)

MtCO2/y

Megaton of CO2 per year

MW

MegaWatt (1 MW = 106 W)

MWth

Thermal megaWatt

NER300

EU program involving both CCS and renewable energy sources (RES) technologies

NGO

Nongovernmental organization

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

Pa

Pascal (Pressure unit:1 atmosphere # 105 Pa)

SA

Deep saline aquifer

UNFCCC

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

ZEP

Zero emission platform

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fouillac ConsultantBeaugencyFrance

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