Advertisement

SALICYLIC ACID pp 163-182 | Cite as

Salicylic Acid-Mediated Stress-Induced Flowering

  • K. C. Wada
  • K. TakenoEmail author
Chapter
  • 2.1k Downloads

Abstract

Plants have a tendency to flower under unsuitable growth conditions. Stress factors, such as poor nutrition, high or low temperature, high- or low-intensity light, and ultraviolet light, have been implicated in this stress-induced flowering. The stressed plants do not wait for the arrival of a season when photoperiodic conditions are suitable for flowering, and such precocious flowering might assist in species preservation. Stress-induced flowering has been well studied in Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil), Perilla frutescens var. crispa, Lemna paucicostata (synonym Lemna aequinoctialis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) inhibitor suppresses stress-induced flowering in P. nil, and this effect was reversed with salicylic acid (SA). The PAL gene expression, PAL enzyme activity and SA content in the cotyledons increased during stress-induced flowering. These results suggest that SA mediates stress-induced flowering.

Keywords

Flowering  FLOWERING LOCUS T Lemna paucicostata Perilla frutescens Pharbitis nil Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase Salicylic acid Stress Stress-induced flowering 

References

  1. Adams, S., Allen, T., & Whitelam, G. C. (2009). Interaction between the light quality and flowering time pathways in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 60, 257–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amagasa, T., Ogawa, M., & Sugai, S. (1992). Effects of aminooxyacetic acid and its derivatives on flowering in Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 33, 1025–1029.Google Scholar
  3. Appert, C., Zoń, J., & Amrhein, N. (2003). Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid and other phenylalanine analogues. Phytochemistry, 62, 415–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernier, G., & Périlleux, C. (2005). A physiological overview of the genetics of flowering time control. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 3, 3–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blanvillain, R., Wei, S., Wei, P., Kim, J. H., & Ow, D. W. (2011). Stress tolerance to stress escape in plants: Role of the OXS2 zinc-finger transcription factor family. EMBO Journal, 30, 3812–3822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borsani, O., Valpuesta, V., & Botella, M. A. (2001). Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Physiology, 126, 1024–1030.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burn, J. E., Bagnall, D. J., Metzger, J. D., Dennis, E. S., & Peacock, W. J. (1993). DNA methylation, vernalization, and the initiation of flowering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90, 287–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chalker-Scott, L. (1999). Environmental significance of anthocyanins in plant stress responses. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 70, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, Z., Zheng, Z., Huang, J., Lai, Z., & Fan, B. (2009). Biosynthesis of salicylic acid in plants. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 4, 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Christie, P. J., Alfenito, M. R., & Walbot, V. (1994). Impact of low-temperature stress on general phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin pathways: Enhancement of transcript abundance and anthocyanin pigmentation in maize seedlings. Planta, 194, 541–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cleland, C. F. (1970). The use of aphids in the search for the hormonal factors controlling flowering. In D. J. Carr (Ed.), Plant Growth Substances 1970 (pp. 753–757). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Cleland, C. F. (1974). The influence of salicylic acid on flowering and growth in the long-day plant Lemna gibba G3. In R. L. Bieleski, A. R. Ferguson, & M. M. Cresswell (Eds.), Mechanisms of regulation of plant growth (pp. 553–557). Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand.Google Scholar
  13. Cleland, C. F. (1978). The flowering enigma. Bioscience, 28, 265–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cleland, C. F., & Ajami, A. (1974). Identification of the flower-inducing factor isolated from aphid honeydew as being salicylic acid. Plant Physiology, 54, 904–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Corbesier, L., Vincent, C., Jang, S., Fornara, F., Fan, Q., Searle, I., et al. (2007). FT protein movement contributes to long-distance signaling in floral induction of Arabidopsis. Science, 316, 1030–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dezar, C. A., Giacomelli, J. I., Manavella, P. A., Ré, D. A., Alves-Ferreira, M., Baldwin, I. T., et al. (2011). HAHB10, a sunflower HD-Zip II transcription factor, participates in the induction of flowering and in the control of phytohormone-mediated responses to biotic stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 1061–1076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dixon, R. A., & Paiva, N. L. (1995). Stress-induced phenylpropanoid metabolism. The Plant Cell, 7, 1085–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fujioka, S., Yamaguchi, I., Murofushi, N., Takahashi, N., Kaihara, S., & Takimoto, A. (1983). Flowering and endogenous levels of benzoic acid in Lemna species. Plant and Cell Physiology, 24, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gidrol, X., Sabelli, P. A., Fern, Y. S., & Kush, A. K. (1996). Annexin-like protein from Arabidopsis thaliana rescues ΔoxyR mutant of Escherichia coli from H2O2 stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, 11268–11273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hatayama, T., & Takeno, K. (2003). The metabolic pathway of salicylic acid rather than of chlorogenic acid is involved in the stress-induced flowering of Pharbitis nil. Journal of Plant Physiology, 160, 461–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayama, R., Agashe, B., Luley, E., King, R., & Coupland, G. (2007). A circadian rhythm set by dusk determines the expression of FT homologs and the short-day photoperiodic flowering response in Pharbitis. The Plant Cell, 19, 2988–3000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hey, S. J., Byrne, E., & Halford, N. G. (2010). The interface between metabolic and stress signaling. Annals of Botany, 105, 197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hirai, N., Kojima, Y., Koshimizu, K., Shinozaki, M., & Takimoto, A. (1993). Accumulation of phenylpropanoids in cotyledons of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) seedlings during the induction of flowering by poor nutrition. Plant and Cell Physiology, 34, 1039–1044.Google Scholar
  24. Hirai, N., Kuwano, Y., Kojima, Y., Koshimizu, K., Shinozaki, M., & Takimoto, A. (1995). Increase in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase during the non-photoperiodic induction of flowering in seedlings of morning glory (Pharbitis nil). Plant and Cell Physiology, 36, 291–297.Google Scholar
  25. Hirai, N., Yamamuro, M., Koshimizu, K., Shinozaki, M., & Takimoto, A. (1994). Accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the cotyledons of morning glory (Pharbitis nil) seedlings during the induction of flowering by low temperature treatment, and the effect of precedent exposure to high-intensity light. Plant and Cell Physiology, 35, 691–695.Google Scholar
  26. Imamura, S. (1967). Photoperiodic induction and the floral stimulus. In S. Imamura (Ed.), Physiology of flowering in Pharbitis nil (pp. 15–28). Tokyo: Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.Google Scholar
  27. Ishii, T., Soeno, K., Asami, T., Fujioka, S., & Shimada, Y. (2010). Arabidopsis seedlings over-accumulated indole-3-acetic acid in response to aminooxyacetic acid. Bioscience Biotechnology Biochemistry, 74, 2345–2347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ishimaru, A., Takeno, K., & Shinozaki, M. (1996). Correlation of flowering induced by low temperature and endogenous levels of phenylpropanoids in Pharbitis nil: A study with a secondary-metabolism mutant. Journal of Plant Physiology, 148, 672–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ishioka, N., Tanimoto, S., & Harada, H. (1990). Flower-inducing activity of phloem exudate in cultured apices from Pharbitis seedlings. Plant and Cell Physiology, 31, 705–709.Google Scholar
  30. Iwase, Y., Shiraya, T., & Takeno, K. (2010). Flowering and dwarfism induced by DNA demethylation in Pharbitis nil. Physiologia Plantarum, 139, 118–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaspers, P., & Kangasjärvi, J. (2010). Reactive oxygen species in abiotic stress signaling. Physiologia Plantarum, 138, 405–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jin, J. B., Jin, Y. H., Lee, J., Miura, K., Yoo, C. Y., Kim, W. Y., et al. (2008). The SUMO E3 ligase, AtSIZ1, regulates flowering by controlling a salicylic acid-mediated floral promotion pathway and through affects on FLC chromatin structure. The Plant Journal, 53, 530–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kandeler, R. (1985). Lemnaceae. In A. H. Halevy (Ed.), CRC Handbook of flowering (Vol. 3 pp. 251–279). Florida: CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  34. Kessmann, H., Edwards, R., Geno, P. W., & Dixon, R. A. (1990). Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): V. Constitutive and elicitor-induced accumulation of isoflavonoid conjugates in cell suspension cultures. Plant Physiology, 94, 227–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kondo, H., Miura, T., Wada, K. C., & Takeno, K. (2007). Induction of flowering by 5-azacytidine in some plant species: Relationship between the stability of photoperiodically induced flowering and flower-inducing effect of DNA demethylation. Physiologia Plantarum, 131, 462–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kondo, H., Ozaki, H., Itoh, K., Kato, A., & Takeno, K. (2006). Flowering induced by 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating reagent in a short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa. Physiologia Plantarum, 127, 130–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kondo, H., Shiraya, T., Wada, K. C., & Takeno, K. (2010). Induction of flowering by DNA demethylation in Perilla frutescens and Silene armeria: Heritability of 5-azacytidine-induced effects and alteration of the DNA methylation state by photoperiodic conditions. Plant Science, 178, 321–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krajnčič, B. (1985). Regulation of floral induction with ABA and EDDHA. Biološki Vestnik 33, 39–52.Google Scholar
  39. Krajnčič, B., Kristl, J., & Janžekovič, I. (2006). Possible role of jasmonic acid in the regulation of floral induction, evocation and floral differentiation in Lemna minor L. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 44, 752–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Krajnčič, B., & Nemec, J. (1995). The effect of jasmonic acid on flowering in Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleiden. Journal of Plant Physiology, 146, 754–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Larkindale, J., Hall, J. D., Knight, M. R., & Vierling, E. (2005). Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiology, 138, 882–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee, S., Kim, S. G., & Park, C. M. (2010). Salicylic acid promotes seed germination under high salinity by modulating antioxidant activity in Arabidopsis. New Phytologist, 188, 626–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. León, J., Lawton, M. A., & Raskin, I. (1995). Hydrogen peroxide stimulates salicylic acid biosynthesis in tobacco. Plant Physiology, 108, 1673–1678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lin, M. K., Belanger, H., Lee, Y. J., Varkonyi-Gasic, E., Taoka, K., Miura, E., et al. (2007). FLOWERING LOCUS T protein may act as the long-distance florigenic signal in the cucurbits. The Plant Cell, 19, 1488–1506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu, Y., & Zhang, S. (2004). Phosphorylation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase by MPK6, a stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase, induces ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell, 16, 3386–3399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marín, I. C., Loef, I., Bartetzko, L., Searle, I., Coupland, G., Stitt, M., et al. (2011). Nitrate regulates floral induction in Arabidopsis, acting independently of light, gibberellin and autonomous pathways. Planta, 233, 539–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Martínez, C., Pons, E., Prats, G., & León, J. (2004). Salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defense responses and reproductive development. The Plant Journal, 37, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mateo, A., Funck, D., Mühlenbock, P., Kular, B., Mullineaux, P. M., & Karpinski, S. (2006). Controlled levels of salicylic acid are required for optimal photosynthesis and redox homeostasis. Journal of Experimental Botany, 57, 1795–1807.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mauch-Mani, B., & Slusarenko, A. J. (1996). Production of salicylic acid precursors is a major function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in the resistance of Arabidopsis to Peronospora parasitica. The Plant Cell, 8, 203–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Mavandad, M., Edwards, R., Liang, X., Lamb, C. J., & Dixon, R. A. (1990). Effects of trans-cinnamic acid on expression of the bean phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family. Plant Physiology, 94, 671–680.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McDaniel, C. N. (1996). Developmental physiology of floral initiation in Nicotiana tabacum L. Journal of Experimental Botany, 47, 465–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Michaels, S. D., & Amasino, R. M. (2000). Memories of winter: Vernalization and the competence to flower. Plant, Cell and Environment, 23, 1145–1153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Michaels, S. D., & Amasino, R. M. (2001). Loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity eliminates the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and autonomous pathway mutations but not responsiveness to vernalization. The Plant Cell, 13, 935–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Moreau, M., Lindermar, C., Durner, J., & Klessig, D. F. (2010). NO synthesis and signaling in plants—where do we stand? Physiologia Plantarum, 138, 372–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nakanishi, F., Kusumi, T., Inoue, Y., & Fujii, T. (1995). Dihydrokaempferol glucoside from cotyledons promotes flowering in Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 36, 1303–1309.Google Scholar
  56. Neuenschwander, U., Vernooij, B., Friedrich, L., Uknes, S., Kessmann, H., & Ryals, J. (1995). Is hydrogen peroxide a second messenger of salicylic acid in systemic acquired resistance? The Plant Journal, 8, 227–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ni, W., Fahrendorf, T., Balance, G. M., Lamb, C. J., & Dixon, R. A. (1996). Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). XX. Transcriptional activation of phenylpropanoid pathway genes in elicitor-induced cell suspension cultures. Plant Molecular Biology, 30, 427–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Okuda, T., Matsuda, Y., Yamanaka, A., & Sagisaka, S. (1991). Abrupt increase in the level of hydrogen peroxide in leaves of winter wheat is caused by cold treatment. Plant Physiology, 97, 1265–1267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Orr, J. D., Edwards, R., & Dixon, R. A. (1993). Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) XIV. Changes in the levels of phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates in relation to regulation of l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in elicitor-treated cell-suspension cultures. Plant Physiology, 101, 847–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Purse, J. G. (1984). Phloem exudate of Perilla crispa and its effects of flowering of P. crispa shoot explants. Journal of Experimental Botany, 35, 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rasmussen, J. B., Hammerschmidt, R., & Zook, M. N. (1991). Systemic induction of salicylic acid accumulation in cucumber after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae. Plant Physiology, 97, 1342–1347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Reymond, P., & Farmer, E. E. (1998). Jasmonate and salicylate as global signals for defense gene expression. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 1, 404–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rivas-San Vicente, M., & Plasencia, J. (2011). Salicylic acid beyond defence: Its role in plant growth and development. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 3321–3338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Scott, I. M., Clarke, S. M., Wood, J. E., & Mur, L. A. J. (2004). Salicylate accumulation inhibits growth at chilling temperature in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 135, 1040–1049.Google Scholar
  65. Segarra, S., Mir, R., Martínez, C., & León, J. (2010). Genome-wide analyses of the transcriptomes of salicylic acid-deficient versus wild-type plants uncover Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) as a regulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell and Environment, 33, 11–22.Google Scholar
  66. Seo, P. J., Ryu, J., Kang, S. K., & Park, C. M. (2011). Modulation of sugar metabolism by an INDETERMINATE DOMAIN transcription factor contributes to photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 65, 418–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shimakawa, A., Shiraya, T., Ishizuka, Y., Wada, K. C., Mitsui, T., & Takeno, K. (2012). Salicylic acid is involved in the regulation of starvation stress-induced flowering in Lemna paucicostata. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169, 987–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Shinozaki, M. (1985). Organ correlation in long-day flowering of Pharbitis nil. Biologia Plantarum, 27, 382–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shinozaki, M., Asada, K., & Takimoto, A. (1988a). Correlation between chlorogenic acid content in cotyledons and flowering in Pharbitis seedlings under poor nutrition. Plant and Cell Physiology, 29, 605–609.Google Scholar
  70. Shinozaki, M., Hikichi, M., Yoshida, K., Watanabe, K., & Takimoto, A. (1982). Effect of high-intensity light given prior to low-temperature treatment on the long-day flowering of Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 23, 473–477.Google Scholar
  71. Shinozaki, M., Hirai, N., Kojima, Y., Koshimizu, K., & Takimoto, A. (1994). Correlation between level of phenylpropanoids in cotyledons and flowering in Pharbitis seedlings under high-fluence illumination. Plant and Cell Physiology, 35, 807–810.Google Scholar
  72. Shinozaki, M., Swe, K. L., & Takimoto, A. (1988b). Varietal difference in the ability to flower in response to poor nutrition and its correlation with chlorogenic acid accumulation in Pharbitis nil. Plant and Cell Physiology, 29, 611–614.Google Scholar
  73. Shinozaki, M., & Takimoto, A. (1982). The role of cotyledons in flower initiation of Pharbitis nil at low temperatures. Plant and Cell Physiology, 23, 403–408.Google Scholar
  74. Shinozaki, M., Watanabe, K., & Takimoto, A. (1985). Flower-promoting activity of benzoic acid and related compounds for Pharbitis nil Chois. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture Kyoto University, 126, 21–26.Google Scholar
  75. Simpson, G. G. (2004). The autonomous pathway: Epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene regulation in the control of Arabidopsis flowering time. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 7, 570–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Soeno, K., Goda, H., Ishii, T., Ogura, T., Tachikawa, T., Sasaki, E., et al. (2010). Auxin biosynthesis inhibitors, identified by a genomics-based approach, provide insights into auxin biosynthesis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 51, 524–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Steward, N., Ito, M., Yamaguchi, Y., Koizumi, N., & Sano, H. (2002). Periodic DNA methylation in maize nucleosomes and demethylation by environmental stress. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277, 37741–37746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suge, H. (1972). Inhibition of photoperiodic floral induction in Pharbitis nil by ethylene. Plant and Cell Physiology, 13, 1031–1038.Google Scholar
  79. Summermatter, K., Sticher, L., & Métraux, J. P. (1995). Systemic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana infected and challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv syringae. Plant Physiology, 108, 1379–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Swe, K. L., Shinozaki, M., & Takimoto, A. (1985). Varietal differences in flowering behavior of Pharbitis nil Chois. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture Kyoto University, 126, 1–20.Google Scholar
  81. Takeno, K. (1996). Influences of plant hormones on photoperiodic flowering in Pharbitis nil: Re-evaluation by the perfusion technique. Plant Growth Regulation, 20, 189–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Takeno, K. (2012). Stress-induced flowering. In P. Ahmad & M. N. V. Prasad (Eds.), Abiotic stress responses in plants: Metabolism, productivity and sustainability (pp. 331–345). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Takeno, K., & Maeda, T. (1996). Abscisic acid both promotes and inhibits photoperiodic flowering of Pharbitis nil. Physiologia Plantarum, 98, 467–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tamaki, S., Matsuo, S., Wong, H. L., Yokoi, S., & Shimamoto, K. (2007). Hd3a protein is a mobile flowering signal in rice. Science, 316, 1033–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Thomas, B., & Vince-Prue, D. (1997). Photoperiodism in Plants (2nd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Wada, K. C. (2007). Stress-induced flowering. Dissertation of Master Degree. Niigata University (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  87. Wada, K. C. (2012). Regulatory mechanism of stress-induced flowering. Dissertation of PhD Degree. Niigata University.Google Scholar
  88. Wada, K. C., Kondo, H., & Takeno, K. (2010a). Obligatory short-day plant, Perilla frutescens var. crispa can flower in response to low-intensity light stress under long-day conditions. Physiologia Plantarum, 138, 339–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wada, K. C., & Takeno, K. (2010). Stress-induced flowering. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5, 944–947.Google Scholar
  90. Wada, K. C., Yamada, M., Shiraya, T., & Takeno, K. (2010b). Salicylic acid and the flowering gene FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog are involved in poor-nutrition stress-induced flowering of Pharbitis nil. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167, 447–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wada, N., Shinozaki, M., & Iwamura, H. (1994). Flower induction by polyamines and related compounds in seedlings of morning glory (Pharbitis nil cv. Kidachi). Plant and Cell Physiology, 35, 469–472.Google Scholar
  92. Wen, P. F., Chen, J. Y., Kong, W. F., Pan, Q. H., Wan, S. B., & Huang, W. D. (2005). Salicylic acid induced the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene in grape berry. Plant Science, 169, 928–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xiong, L., Schumaker, K. S., & Zhu, J. K. (2002). Cell signaling during cold, drought, and salt stress. The Plant Cell, 14 (suppl.), S165–183.Google Scholar
  94. Yaish, M. W., Colasanti, J., & Rothstein, S. J. (2011). The role of epigenetic processes in controlling flowering time in plants exposed to stress. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62, 3727–3735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yalpani, N., Leoń, J., Lawton, M. A., & Raskin, I. (1993). Pathway of salicylic acid biosynthesis in healthy and virus-inoculated tobacco. Plant Physiology, 103, 315–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Yamada, M. (2011). The gene regulation of stress-induced flowering in Pharbitis nil. Dissertation of Master Degree. Niigata University (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  97. Yamaguchi, S., Yokoyama, M., Iida, T., Okai, M., Tanaka, O., & Takimoto, A. (2001). Identification of a component that induces flowering of Lemna among the reaction products of α–ketol linolenic acid (FIF) and norepinephrine. Plant and Cell Physiology, 42, 1201–1209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yokoyama, M., Yamaguchi, S., Inomata, S., Komatsu, K., Yoshida, S., Iida, T., et al. (2000). Stress-induced factor involved in flower formation of Lemna is an α–ketol derivative of linolenic acid. Plant and Cell Physiology, 41, 110–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yu, D., Liu, Y., Fan, B., Klessig, D. F., & Chen, Z. (1997). Is the high basal level of salicylic acid important for disease resistance in potato? Plant Physiology, 115, 343–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ChemistryFaculty of Agriculture, Niigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  2. 2.Department of BiologyFaculty of Science, Niigata UniversityNiigataJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Science and TechnologyNiigata UniversityNiigataJapan

Personalised recommendations