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Glycerolipid Biosynthesis and Chloroplast Biogenesis

  • Maryse A. BlockEmail author
  • Emmanuelle Dubots
  • Eric Maréchal
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 36)

Summary

Chloroplast membranes are enriched with galactoglycerolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). These galactolipids do not contain phosphorus and chloroplast membranes are therefore very poor in phospholipids, primarily represented as a special trans Δ3-hexadecenoic acid-containing phosphatidylglycerol (PG), a finely compartmentalized amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and a very low and transitory level of phosphatidic acid (PA). The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires a highly efficient glycerolipid-synthesis system for the development and functioning of both the chloroplast envelope and the thylakoids. Photosynthesis notably relies on the presence of galactolipids and PG. In this chapter, we review the properties of these glycerolipids, their role in photosynthesis and the characteristics of their synthetic pathways. We focus on the role of MGDG synthase in chloroplast biogenesis, the enzyme functioning in the chloroplast envelope membrane, and different mechanisms involved in its regulation. The regulation of MGDG synthase by the phospholipids, PG and PA, is discussed in terms of membrane homeostasis and plant cell biology.

Keywords

Phosphatidic Acid Chloroplast Membrane Envelope Membrane Chloroplast Envelope Anionic Lipid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

ACP –

Acyl carrier protein;

C16:0 –

Palmitic acid;

C16:3 –

Hexadecatrienoic acid;

C18:0 –

Stearic acid;

C18:1 –

Oleic acid;

C18:2 –

Linoleic acid;

DAG –

Diacylglycerol;

DGDG –

Digalactosyldiacylglycerol;

ER –

Endoplasmic reticulum;

G3P –

Glycerol-3-Phosphate;

MGDG –

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol;

PA –

Phosphatidic acid;

PAP –

Phosphatidic acid phosphatase;

PC –

Phosphatidylcholine;

PE –

Phosphatidylethanolamine;

PG –

Phosphatidylglycerol;

PGP –

Phosphatidylglycerol phosphate;

PI –

Phosphatidylinositol;

PLC –

Phospholipase C;

PLD –

Phospholipase D;

PS –

Phosphatidylserine;

PS II –

Photosystem II;

SQDG –

Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol;

TAG –

Triacylgly­cerol;

TetraGDG –

Tetragalactosyldiacylglycerol;

TriGDG –

Trigalactosyldiacylglycerol;

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Jacques Joyard and Roland Douce for initiating this research in our laboratory and for the guidance they gave us. We are thankful to Denis Falconet and Juliette Jouhet for helpful reading of the manuscript. The research conducted in the authors’ laboratory was supported by Centre National de la Recherche Scienti­fique (CNRS), Com­missariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) and Université Joseph Fourier (UJF).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maryse A. Block
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emmanuelle Dubots
    • 2
  • Eric Maréchal
    • 1
  1. 1.CEA-Grenoble, iRTSV/LPCVGrenobleFrance
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Biochemistry UnitUniversity of FribourgFribourgSwitzerland

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