Response of Mature, Developing and Senescing Chloroplasts to Environmental Stress

  • Padmanava Joshi
  • Lalitendu Nayak
  • Amarendra N. Misra
  • Basanti BiswalEmail author
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 36)


The composition, organization and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants change in response to different environmental stress conditions. The changes include disorganization of thylakoid membranes, alteration in the composition and function of ­light-harvesting complexes (LHC), impairment of electron transport chain and inactivation of reaction centers of photosystems (PSI and PSII), ATP synthase and enzymes of the Calvin-Benson cycle. It is believed that these changes bring about imbalances in photostasis of photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, and endogenous sugar status. These imbalances are responsible for the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and play important regulatory roles in the process of acclimation of plants to various environments. There is convincing evidence that such imbalances modulate the expression of many plastid and nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic components. However, with respect to both damage and acclimation, the responses to environmental stress factors of mature, developing and sene­scing chloroplasts are different. This chapter discusses the evidences for the different aspects of acclimation and provides an understanding of the underlying mechanisms of damage and acclimation of chloroplasts during different phases of leaf development.


Thylakoid Membrane Leaf Senescence Photosynthetic Apparatus Redox Homeostasis PSII Reaction Center 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Abscisic acid;

b Zip

Basic leucine zipper;








Jasmonic acid;


Light harvesting complex;


Light harvesting chlorophyll protein complex;


Prolamellar body;


Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase;


Photosystem I (II);


Reactive oxygen species;


Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase;


Salicylic acid;


Senescence associated genes;


Senescence down-regulating genes;

SnRK 1

Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related kinase 1



We thank Udaya C. Biswal and Bartolomé Sabater for valuable suggestions and critical reading of this manuscript. Financial support by University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi to PJ [No. 35-161/2008 (SR)], to ANM [No.36-302/2008 (SR)] and by Depart­ment of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of Odisha to BB (ST-Bio-19/2008/1149/ST) are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padmanava Joshi
    • 1
  • Lalitendu Nayak
    • 1
  • Amarendra N. Misra
    • 2
  • Basanti Biswal
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsAnchal College, PadampurBargarhIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Life Sciences, School of Natural SciencesCentral University of JharkhandRanchiIndia
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesSambalpur UniversitySambalpurIndia

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