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Photoregulation of Chloroplast Development: Retrograde Signaling

  • Naini Burman
  • Jitendra P. KhuranaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 36)

Summary

Chloroplasts are the major organelles of the plant cell, which perform photosynthesis and thereby support life on Earth. Light not only provides energy for photosynthesis, it also regulates several proteins which are involved in chloroplast biogenesis and functioning. This strategy helps plants to conserve their energy and resources for an appropriate time when the surrounding environment is favourable for their growth and development. This direct signaling pathway is called anterograde signaling. Apart from this direct signaling pathway, chloroplasts also have a retrograde route through which, based on their developmental status, they can modulate the expression of genes regulated by light. Chloroplasts emit some signals, called plastid signals, when they are under some kind of stress, to keep the nucleus updated on their developmental and metabolic status. These plastid signals use different components of the light signaling pathway such as phytochrome B (PHYB), cryptochrome 1 (CRY1), elongated hypocotyl 5 (HY5) and constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) and invariably convert them from a positive regulator of light-regulated genes into a negative regulator or vice-versa, depending upon the functional state of the chloroplast. Apart from this, also a light-independent pathway mediated by GUN1 (Genomes Uncoupled 1) exists. Thus, interplay of anterograde and retrograde signaling, crossing each other at different junctions, helps plants to respond appropriately to the ambient light environment and to regulate chloroplast development.

Keywords

Retrograde Signaling Plastoquinone Pool Plastid Protein Chloroplast Biogenesis Nuclear Gene Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

2CPA

2-CYS Peroxiredoxin-A;

ABI4

ABA-insensitive 4;

APX2

Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases;

AtGLK1

Golden 2 like 1;

AtMYC2

MYC-related transcriptional activator;

CAB

Chlorophyll a/b binding protein;

CCA1

Circadian clock associated 1;

CHLD

Mg-chelatase D subunit;

CHLH

Mg-chelatase H subunit;

CHLI

Mg-chelatase I subunit;

COP1

Constitutive ­photomorphogenic 1;

CRY1

Cryptochrome 1;

CRY2

Cryptochrome 2;

DET

De-etiolated 1;

EID1

Empfindlicher im dunkelroten licht 1;

ELIPS

Early light-inducible proteins;

END

Enhanced de-etiolation;

EX1

Executor 1;

EX2

Executor 2;

FHY3

Far-red elongated hypocotyl 3;

FLU

Fluorescent;

GBF

G-box binding factor;

GO

Gene ontology;

GUN

Genomes uncoupled;

HFR

Long hypocotyl in far-red;

HRB1

Hypersensitive to red and blue;

HSP

Heat shock protein;

HY1

Long hypocotyl mutant 1;

HY2

Long hypocotyl mutant 2;

HY5

Elongated hypocotyl 5;

JA

Jasmonic acid;

LHCB

Light harvesting complex of photosystem II subunit;

LHCII

Light-harvesting complex II;

LREs

Light responsive elements;

PGE

Plastid gene expression;

PhANGs

Photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes;

PIF3

Phytochrome interacting factor 3;

PIF4

Phytochrome interacting factor 4;

PPR

Pentatricopeptide-repeat;

PQ

Plastoquinone pool;

PRIN2

Plastid redox insensitive 2;

PRR5

Pseudo-response regulator 5;

PTAC2

Plastid transcriptionally active chromosome protein 2;

RBCS

Rubisco (small subunit);

Rimb

Redox-imbalanced;

SMR

Small mutS-related;

SPA1

Suppressor of phytochrome A-1;

STN7

STT7 homolog;

TIC

Translocon of the inner envelope of the chloroplast;

TOC

Translocon of the outer envelope of the chloroplast;

ZAT10

Zinc finger transcription factor

Notes

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to acknowledge Department of Biotechnology, Government of India and University Grants Commission, New Delhi for financial support. Naini Burman thanks Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi for awarding research fellowship and University of Delhi for Teaching Assistantship.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Interdisciplinary Centre for Plant Genomics and Department of Plant Molecular BiologyUniversity of DelhiNew DelhiIndia

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