Chloroplast Development: Time, Dissipative Structures and Fluctuations

  • Mukesh K. RavalEmail author
  • Bijaya K. Mishra
  • Basanti Biswal
  • Udaya C. Biswal
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 36)


Chloroplast development describes the life cycle of plastids from the proplastid to the mature chloroplast, which is subsequently transformed to a gerontoplast and finally to a necrotic plastid. Similar to any living system, the chloroplast may be defined as an open thermodynamic system far away from equilibrium. It has self-organized dissipative structures, namely, metabolome and genome, which fluctuate with development. The proplastid grows to become a mature chloroplast with self-organizing metabolic networks consisting of core, plastic, and signaling subsystems. The major function of the chloroplast is photosynthesis. Light induces redox reactions resulting finally into the synthesis of sugars. The photoelectron transport systems and sugars are not only two components of the core metabolic network, but these are also elements of signaling subsystems. The signaling regulatory and metabolic networks associated with chloroplast development are complex in nature and therefore are not fully understood. Many experimental data in the area remain to be explained without ambiguity. Examination of chloroplast development with respect to time, structure and fluctuations under the lens of non-equilibrium thermodynamics may contribute to our understanding of the process.


Thylakoid Membrane Metabolic Network Entropy Production Plastid Genome Dissipative Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Adenosine 5′-triphosphate;


Control by epistasy of synthesis;


– Coup­ling factor intrinsic component;


– Coupling ­factor extrinsic component;

Cyt b/f –

Cytochrome b/f complex;


Maximum entropy production;

MS –

Mass spectroscopy;


Nicotinamide adenine diphosphate (reduced);


Photosystem I;


Photosystem II;

Rubisco –

Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mukesh K. Raval
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bijaya K. Mishra
    • 2
  • Basanti Biswal
    • 3
  • Udaya C. Biswal
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryGangadhar Meher CollegeSambalpurIndia
  2. 2.School of ChemistrySambalpur UniversitySambalpurIndia
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesSambalpur UniversitySambalpurIndia

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