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The Dynamic Role of Chloroplasts in Integrating Plant Growth and Development

  • Karin Krupinska
  • Udaya C. Biswal
  • Basanti BiswalEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 36)

Summary

This chapter refers to the entire book and uses the information presented in the individual chapters to provide a brief survey of the current knowledge of plastid development and chloro­plast biology, which reaches far beyond the photosynthetic function of the organelle. The organelle significantly modulates plant growth, development and senescence. The development of chloro­plasts is closely associated with the development of the whole plant. Its development involves both nuclear and plastid gene expression and environmental modulation. Although the levels of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of gene expression and the import of nuclear encoded proteins into the organelle have been studied intensively, the coordinated assembly of the multimeric complexes, required for chloroplast function, still remains a mystery. New ideas are emerging on the expression potential of plastid DNA, its stability and regulation during development of the organelle. The regulation of chloroplast development involves interactions of cellular organelles, exchange of metabolites, participation of phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intensive cross-talk with the nucleus (anterograde and retrograde signaling). Chloroplast development begins with proplastid-to-chloroplast transformation that involves coordinated synthesis of lipids, proteins and pigments. In multimeric protein complexes bound to thylakoids or located in the stroma, the proteins and cofactors assemble in sequence with a definite stoichiometry. On the other hand, transformation of mature chloroplasts to gerontoplasts during leaf senescence causes regulated disassembly of the structural fabric of the organelle with loss in photosynthesis. The mechanisms of senescence induced degradation of pigments, proteins and lipids follow distinct pathways. The enzymes involved in the degrada­tion are largely known. The degradation pathways occur inside and outside of plastids; the latter is mediated by autophagy, participation of senescence associated vacuoles (SAVs) and Rubisco containing bodies (RCBs). The process is associated with expression of senescence associated genes (SAGs). Chloroplasts, both during biogenesis and senescence, respond to the environmental changes and adapt with appropriate modifications, in response to the changes. Finally, in this chapter we have raised several unanswered questions to be addressed in the future and have provided a critical discussion on the direction of further research in the area.

Keywords

Thylakoid Membrane Chloroplast Development Plastid Gene Plastid Protein Chloroplast Biogenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations:

ABA

Abscisic acid;

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum;

GFP

Green fluorescent protein;

JA

Jasmonic acid;

NEP

Nuclear encoded phage-type RNA polymerase;

PEP

Plastid encoded RNA polymerase;

PSI

Photosystem I;

PSII

Photosystem II;

RCBs

Rubisco containing bodies;

ROS

Reactive oxygen species;

Rubisco

Ribulose bis phosphate carboxylase oxygenase;

SA

Salicylic acid; SAGs – Senescence associated genes;

SAVs

Senescence associated vacuoles;

TIC

Translocon of the inner envelope membrane of chloroplast;

TOC

Translocon of the outer envelope membrane of chloroplast;

T6P

Trehalose 6-phosphate

Notes

Acknowledgments

Research of Karin Krupinska on plastid biology and leaf senescence is supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Community (EC). Basanti Biswal wishes to thank Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi for financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karin Krupinska
    • 1
  • Udaya C. Biswal
    • 2
  • Basanti Biswal
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of BotanyUniversity of KielKielGermany
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesSambalpur UniversitySambalpurIndia

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