Factor X pp 217-233 | Cite as

Requirements of an International Natural Resource Policy

  • Judit KanthakEmail author
  • Michael Golde
Part of the Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science book series (ECOE, volume 29)


The increasing demand for raw materials will continue to exert pressure on resource availability and on the environment with all the negative consequences for the economy and society. The long term goals are the reduction of consumption on the one hand and a reduction of negative impacts of unavoidable resource use on the other. There are many approaches to increase resource efficiency, to reduce the absolute amount of resource use and to reduce the negative environmental impacts of resource use across product lifecycles. Many of these measures can be implemented on a national level. However as the world economy is very much integrated, an internationally coordinated policy will gain better results. Resource consuming and resource extracting countries should adopt a strategy of resource governance which seeks international agreement on global targets for natural resource extraction and consumption and coordinated measures for an increase of resource efficiency.


United Nations Environment Programme Resource Efficiency Resource Policy Best Available Technique Small Scale Mining 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Alcott B (2010) Impact caps: why population, affluence and technology strategies should be abandoned. J Cleaner Prod 18(6):552–560, Growth, recession or degrowth for sustainability and equity? April 2010Google Scholar
  2. Auty RM (2004) Resource abundance and economic development. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. BGR (2009) Certified trading chains in mineral production project outline and status. Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Hannover.,templateId=raw,property=publicationFile.pdf/CTC-update-Nov09.pdf
  4. Bleischwitz/Bringezu (2007) Globales Ressourcenmanagement, Konfliktpotenziale und Grundzüge eines Global Governance-Systems. Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden. Policy paper 27. October 2007Google Scholar
  5. BMU/UBA (2009) Umweltwirtschaftsbericht, Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit (BMU) und Umweltbundesamt (UBA), BerlinGoogle Scholar
  6. COM (2005) Annex to the communication on the thematic strategy on the sustainable use of natural resources, impact assessment. COM (2005) 670 finalGoogle Scholar
  7. COM (2008) Public procurement for a better environment. COM(2008) 400 finalGoogle Scholar
  8. COM (2011) Roadmap to a resource efficient Europe. COM(2011) 571 finalGoogle Scholar
  9. CSCP (2008) Herrndorf M, Kuhndt M, Tessema F (2008) Raising resource productivity in global value chains – spotlights on international perspectives and best practice. UNEP/Wuppertal Institute Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, WuppertalGoogle Scholar
  10. Danish EPA (2008) McAloone T, Bey Niki B (2008) Environmental improvement through product development – a guide. Danish Environmental Protection Agency.
  11. EC (2006) Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC. 15.03.2006Google Scholar
  12. EC (2008) Directive 2008/1/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning integrated pollution prevention and control. 15.01.2008Google Scholar
  13. EC (2009) Reference Document on Best Available Techniques (BAT) for the management of tailings and waste-rock in mining activities. BREF (01.2009)Google Scholar
  14. EC (2011) Analysis of the key contributions to resource efficiency. Bio Intelligence Service. March 2011Google Scholar
  15. EC Memo (2012) Manifesto for a resource efficient Europe. Memo/12/989Google Scholar
  16. Eckermann F, Golde M, Herczeg M, Mazzanti M, Montini A, Zoboli R (2012) Resource taxation and resource efficiency along the value chain of mineral resources, ETC/SCP working paper 3/2012. October 2012Google Scholar
  17. EEA (2008) Effectiveness of environmental taxes and charges for managing sand, gravel and rock extraction in selected EU countries. EEA report 2/2008Google Scholar
  18. Gordon RB, Bertram M, Graedel TE (2006) Metal stocks and sustainability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(5):1209–1214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hagelüken C (2008) Opportunities & challenges to recover scarce and valuable metals from electronic devices, Vortrag, OECD-UNEP conference on resource efficiency, Paris, 24 Apr 2008Google Scholar
  20. Jenkins J, Nordhaus T, Shellenberger M (2011) Energy emergence, rebound and backfire as emergent phenomena. Breakthrough InstituteGoogle Scholar
  21. OECD (2008a) Environmental outlook to 2030. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008Google Scholar
  22. OECD (2008b) Natural resources and pro-poor growth: the economics and politics. Part II, Chapter 11. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2008Google Scholar
  23. Rohn H, Lang-Koetz C, Pastewski N, Lettenmeier M (2009) Identification of technologies, products and strategies with high resource efficiency potential – results of a cooperative selection process. MaRess paper resource efficiency 1.3. Wuppertal Institute. September 2009Google Scholar
  24. SERI (2009) Overconsumption, our use of the world’s natural resources. SERI, GLOBAL 2000, Friends of the Earth Europe. September 2009Google Scholar
  25. UBA (2009) Vorschläge des Umweltbundesamtes zur Gestaltung der Europäischen Rohstoffinitiative KOM (2008) 699. Umweltbundesamt. Dessau. March 2009Google Scholar
  26. UN (2011) World population prospects: the 2010 revision, population database. United Nations. Accessed Jan 2013
  27. UN (2012) World economic situation and prospects 2013. Pre-release. United Nations, New York.
  28. UNEP (2001) APELL for mining: guidance for the mining industry in raising awareness and preparedness for emergencies at local level. Technical report 41. Scholar
  29. UNEP (2011) A report of the Working Group on the global metal flows to the International Resource Panel. In: Graedel TE, Alwood J, Birat J-P, Reck BK, Sibley SF, Sonnemann G, Buchert M, Hagelücken C (eds) Recycling rates of metals – a status report. UNEP, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. USGS (2011) Historical statistics for mineral and material commodities in the United States. Accessed Jan 2013
  31. Wilts H, Bleischwitz R, Sanden J (2010) A Covenant for closing material cycles in the recycling of end of life vehicles. MaRess paper resource efficiency 3.5. Wuppertal Institute. December 2010Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Federal Environment Agency (Germany)Dessau-RoßlauGermany

Personalised recommendations