Introduction. The Classical Geldart’s Diagram and the New Type of Gas-Fluidization Behavior

Part of the Particle Technology Series book series (POTS, volume 18)


A typical fluidized bed consists of a vertical vessel closed at the bottom by a porous plate on which a bed of particles is resting. A fluid is supplied to the powder bed from below. At sufficiently high gas flow, the gas pressure drop balances the material weight per unit area and the bed expands in the so-called fluidized state. Traditionally, fine particles were impossible to fluidize by gas due to their strongly cohesive behavior. However, a new class of powders has arisen in the last few years that can be uniformly fluidized in a nonbubbling fluid-like state. Fine particles in these special powders aggregate according to a dynamic aggregation process, which ends up with the formation of porous light aggregates that can be fluidized by a gas, much like coarse beads are fluidized by a liquid. In this chapter, the classical Geldart diagram and the newly-reported fluid-like behavior exhibited by this special class of fine powders are reviewed.


Fumed Silica Atomic Layer Deposition Fluidization Behavior Minimum Fluidization Interparticle Force 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Kwauk, M., Li, J., Liu, D.: Particulate and aggregative fluidization—50 years in retrospect. Powder Technol. 111, 3–18 (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gidaspow, D.: Multiphase Flow and Fluidization, 1st edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1994). ISBN 9780122824708 zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jackson, R.: The Dynamics of Fluidized Particles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geldart, D.: Types of gas fluidization. Powder Technol. 7(5), 285–292 (1973). doi: 10.1016/0032-5910(73)80037-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Valverde, J.M., Castellanos, A., Mills, P., Quintanilla, M.A.S.: Effect of particle size and interparticle force on the fluidization behavior of gas-fluidized beds. Phys. Rev. E 67, 051305 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rietema, K.: Powders, what are they? Powder Technol. 37, 5–23 (1984) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rietema, K.: The Dynamics of Fine Powders. Elsevier, London (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li, J., Kuipers, J.A.M.: Effect of pressure on gas-solid flow behavior in dense gas-fluidised beds: A discrete particle simulation study. Powder Technol. 127(2), 173–184 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rapagna, S., Foscolo, P.U., Gibilaro, L.G.: The influence of temperature on the quality of fluidization. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 20, 305–313 (1994) zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scala, F., Montagnaro, F., Salatino, P.: Attrition of limestone by impact loading in fluidized beds. Energy Fuels 21, 2566–2572 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Blamey, J., Anthony, E.J., Wang, J., Fennell, P.S.: The calcium looping cycle for large-scale CO2 capture. Prog. Energ. Combust. Sci. 36(2), 260–279 (2010). doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2009.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harrison, D., Davidson, J.F., de Kock, J.W.: On the nature of aggregative and particulate fluidisation. Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. 39, 202–211 (1961) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richardson, J.F.: Incipient fluidization and particulate systems. In: Fluidization, pp. 26–64. Academic Press, London (1971) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Castellanos, A.: The relationship between attractive interparticle forces and bulk behaviour in dry and uncharged fine powders. Adv. Phys. 54, 263–376 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhu, C., Yu, Q., Dave, R.N., Pfeffer, R.: Gas fluidization characteristics of nanoparticle agglomerates. AIChE J. 51, 426–439 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van Ommen, J.R., Valverde, J.M., Pfeffer, R.: Fluidization of nanopowders: A review. J. Nanopart Res. 14, 737 (2012). doi: 10.1007/s11051-012-0737-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu, Y.A., Hamby, R.K., Colberg, R.D.: Fundamental and practical developments of magnetofluidized beds: A review. Powder Technol. 64, 3–41 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blamey, J., Paterson, N.P.M., Dugwell, D.R., Fennell, P.S.: Mechanism of particle breakage during reactivation of CaO-based sorbents for CO2 capture. Energy Fuels 24, 4605–4616 (2010). doi: 10.1021/ef100476d CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martinez, I., Grasa, G., Murillo, R., Arias, B., Abanades, J.C.: Evaluation of CO2 carrying capacity of reactivated CaO by hydration. Energy Fuels 25, 1294–1301 (2011). doi: 10.1021/ef1015582 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sanchez-Biezma, A., Ballesteros, J.C., Diaz, L., de Zarraga, E., Alvarez, F.J., Lopez, J., Arias, B., Grasa, G., Abanades, J.C.: Postcombustion CO2 capture with CaO status of the technology and next steps towards large scale demonstration. Energy Procedia 4(0), 852–859 (2011). doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2011.01.129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Ommen, J.R., Yurteri, C.U., Ellis, N., Kelder, E.M.: Scalable gas-phase processes to create nanostructured particles. Particuology 8, 572–577 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of PhysicsUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations