Exploring Intermediate Vocational Education and Training for 16–19-Year-Olds in Germany and England

  • Jeremy J. S. HighamEmail author
  • H.-Hugo Kremer
  • David Yeomans
Part of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (TVET, volume 18)


This chapter focuses upon aspects of full-time vocational education and training (VET) provision for young people aged 16–19 in Germany and England. This provision is aimed at young people who have been unable to gain access to the dual system in Germany or advanced level (largely academic) provision in England. We show that there are significant numbers of young people who fall into this category in both countries. The chapter examines some of the characteristics of provision through the transition sector in Germany and a variety of courses in England. Drawing upon recent research, it focuses upon two recent developments – the promotion of ‘personal learning’ in vocational schools in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) and the introduction of diploma courses in England from 2008. The chapter ends with an analysis of similarities between Germany and England in tackling some of the issues and problems in developing full-time intermediate VET in order to meet the needs of the young people, employers and the wider society.


Young People Vocational Education Vocational School Dual System Personal Learning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 19 Alliance. (2010).Diploma discussion paper. Available online at: Accessed 21 May 2010.
  2. Beutner, M., Frehe, P., Kremer, H.-H., & Zoyke, A. (2009). Individuelle Förderung – Einblicke in Strukturen und erste empirische Ergebnisse des Modellprojektes InLab.Kölner Zeitschrift für Wirtschaft und Pädagogik, 24, 15–39.Google Scholar
  3. DCFS. (2007).Specialist schools guidance. Available online at: Accessed 4 Sept 2007.
  4. Dehmel, A. (2005).The role of vocational education and training in promoting lifelong learning in Germany and England. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  5. Deissinger, T., & Hellwig, S. (2005). Apprenticeships in Germany: Modernising the dual system.Education and Training, 47(4/5), 312–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. DfES. (2005).14–19 education and skills implementation plan. London: DfES.Google Scholar
  7. Directgov. (2009).The Diploma. Available online at: Accessed 24 June 2009.
  8. Ertl, H. (2004). Tradition and reform: Modernising the German dual system of vocational education. In G. Hayward & S. James (Eds.),Balancing the skills equation: Key issues and challenges for policy and practice (pp. 117–148). Bristol: Policy Press.Google Scholar
  9. Ertl, H., & Kremer, H.-H. (2006). Curricular reform and college-based innovation in vocational education and training in England and Germany.Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(4), 351–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ertl, H., Stanley, J., Huddleston, P., Stasz, C., Laczik, A., & Hayward, G. (2009).Reviewing diploma development: Evaluation of the design of the diploma qualifications. London: DCSF.Google Scholar
  11. Green, A. (2000). Lifelong learning and the learning society: Different European models of organization. In A. Hodgson (Ed.),Policies, politics and the future of lifelong learning (pp. 35–48). London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  12. Hatcher, R. (2008). Academies and diplomas: Two strategies for shaping the future workforce.Oxford Review of Education, 34(6), 665–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Higham, J. (2003). Curriculum change: A study of the implementation of general national vocational qualifications.Curriculum Journal, 14(3), 317–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Higham, J., & Yeomans, D. (2009).The evaluation of the applied learning specialist schools programme: Final report (p. 51). London: SSAT.Google Scholar
  15. Hodgson, A., & Spours, K. (2007). Specialised diplomas: Transforming the 14–19 landscape in England?Journal of Education Policy, 22(6), 657–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hodgson, A., & Spours, K. (2008).Education & training 14–19: Curriculum, qualifications & organization. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Hodgson, A., & Spours, K. (2010). Vocational qualifications and progression to higher education: The case of 14–19 Diplomas in the English system.Journal of Education and Work, 23(2), 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. House of Commons Education and Skills Committee. (2007).14–19 Diplomas. London: House of Commons.Google Scholar
  19. Kunze, I (2009). Begründungen und Problembereiche individueller Förderung in der Schule. Vorüberlegungen zu einer empirischen Untersuchung. In I. Kunze & C. Solzbacher (Hrsg.),Individuelle Förderung in der Sekundarstufe I und II (pp. 13–25). Esslingen: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.Google Scholar
  20. Kupfer, A. (2010). The socio-political significance of changes to the vocational education system in Germany.British Journal of Sociology of Education, 31(1), 85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lynch, S., McCrone, T., Wade, P., Featherstone, G., Evans, S., & Haynes, G. (2010).National evaluation of Diplomas: The first year of delivery. London: DCSF.Google Scholar
  22. O’Donnell, L., Lynch, S., Wade, P., Featherstone, G., Shuayb, M., & Golden, S. (2009).National evaluation of Diplomas: Preparation for 2008 delivery. London: DCSF.Google Scholar
  23. OCR. (2008).Level 2 principal learning in creative and media H807. Cambridge: Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations.Google Scholar
  24. Ofsted. (2009).Implementation of the 14–19 reforms, including the introduction of Diplomas. London: Ofsted.Google Scholar
  25. Pring, R., Hayward, G., Hodgson, A., Johnson, J., Keep, E., Oancea, A., Rees, G., Spours, K., & Wilde, S. (2009).Education for all: The future of education and training for 14–19 year olds. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. QCA. (2009).Vision for the Diploma. Available online at: Accessed 24 June 2009.
  27. Times Educational Supplement. (2010).Diplomas struggle to build a profile. Available online at: Accessed 21 May 2010.
  28. Zoyke, A. (2009). Aktuelles Stichwort: Individuelle Förderung.Kölner Zeitschrift für Wirtschaft und Pädagogik, 24, 95–114.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy J. S. Higham
    • 1
    Email author
  • H.-Hugo Kremer
    • 2
  • David Yeomans
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Education, Post-14 Research GroupThe University of LeedsLeedsUK
  2. 2.Fakultät für WirtschaftswissenschaftenUniversität PaderbornPaderbornGermany

Personalised recommendations