Differences in the Organisation of Apprenticeship in Europe: Findings of a Comparative Evaluation Study

  • Felix Rauner
  • Wolfgang WittigEmail author
Part of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (TVET, volume 18)


This chapter presents a comparative qualitative analysis of governance structures in the dual VET systems of Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland. First, a theoretical framework for the classification of plural systems such as dual apprenticeship training is discussed. It is argued that governance in VET can be described according to the coherence of the system on the one hand and the rationale of agency on the other and that four ideal types of governance can be distinguished. First, a methodology is presented to implement this framework in data collection and analysis on the basis of desk research and an evaluation tool for expert workshops. The study recommends a consistent legal framework regarding the cooperation of learning venues and the establishment of an evaluation and feedback scheme in the shape of an assessment along the training process. In order to efficiently coordinate VET practice, VET policy and VET research, the establishment of a ‘VET innovation system’ is suggested.


Vocational Education Output Control Expert Workshop Evaluation Workshop Desk Research 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Benz, A., Lütz, S., Schimank, U., & Simonis, G. (Eds.). (2007).Handbuch Governance. Theoretische Grundlagen und empirische Anwendungsfelder. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  2. Bertelsmann Stiftung (Ed.). (2009).Steuerung der beruflichen Bildung im internationalen Vergleich. Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung.Google Scholar
  3. Clematide, B., Dahl, A., Vind, A., & Joergensen, C. H. (2005). Challenges for the Danish VET-system – On the path towards a new future model.Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik online, 7. Accessed 12 Apr 2007.
  4. Cort, P. (2005).The Danish vocational education and training system. Resource document. Danish Ministry of Education, Department for Vocational Education and Training. Accessed 11 Apr 2007.
  5. Greinert, W.-D. (1998).Das ‘deutsche’ System der Berufsausbildung. Tradition, Organisation, Funktion (3rd ed.). Baden-Baden: Nomos.Google Scholar
  6. Jann, W. (2001). Neues Steuerungsmodell. In Blanke, B., Bandemer, S., Nullmeier, F. & Wewer, G. (Eds.).Handbuch zur Verwaltungsreform. 2nd ed. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 82–92.Google Scholar
  7. Osborne, D., & Gaebler, T. (1993).Reinventing government: How the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector. New York: Plume.Google Scholar
  8. Spicer, M. (2004). Public Administration, the history of ideas, and the reinventing government movement.Public Administration Review, 64(3), 353–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Spicer, M. (2007). Politics and the limits of a science of governance: Some reflections on the thought of Bernard Crick.Public Administration Review, 67(4), 768–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Stöbe‐Blossey, S. (2001). Output-Steuerung des Verwaltungshandelns. In Blanke, B., Bandemer, S., Nullmeier, F. & Wewer, G. (Eds.).Handbuch zur Verwaltungsreform. 2nd ed. Opladen: Leske + Budrich, pp. 367–376.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TVET Research Group (I:BB)University of BremenBremenGermany
  2. 2.Institut Technik und Bildung (ITB)University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations