Pulse perturbations from bacterial decomposition of Chrysaoraquinquecirrha (Scyphozoa: Pelagiidae)
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Bacteria decomposed damaged and moribund Chrysaora quinquecirrha Desor, 1848 releasing a pulse of carbon and nutrients. Tissue decomposed in 5–8 days, with 14 g of wet biomass exhibiting a half-life of 3 days at 22°C, which is 3× longer than previous reports. Decomposition raised mean concentrations of organic carbon and nutrients above controls by 1–2 orders of magnitude. An increase in nitrogen (16,117 μg l−1) occurred 24 h after increases in phosphorus (1,365 μg l−1) and organic carbon (25 mg l−1). Cocci dominated control incubations, with no significant increase in numbers. In incubations of tissue, bacilli increased exponentially after 6 h to become dominant, and cocci reproduced at a rate that was 30% slower. These results, and those from previous studies, suggested that natural assemblages may include bacteria that decompose medusae, as well as bacteria that benefit from the subsequent release of carbon and nutrients. This experiment also indicated that proteins and other nitrogenous compounds are less labile in damaged medusae than in dead or homogenized individuals. Overall, dense patches of decomposing medusae represent an important, but poorly documented, component of the trophic shunt that diverts carbon and nutrients incorporated by gelatinous zooplankton into microbial trophic webs.
KeywordsJellyfish Scyphomedusae Bacterial decomposition Carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus
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Special thanks go to E. Phlips for providing access to his laboratory and microscope for bacterial counts. Further appreciation goes to C. Brown and personnel in the water chemistry laboratory of the Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program for analyzing nutrient concentrations. J. Jin at the Department of Geological Sciences analyzed carbon concentrations. S. Barry, M. Edwards, A. Krzystan, J. Lockwood, and D. Saindon provided valuable support during this study, and the comments of three anonymous reviewers led to significant improvements in the manuscript. This article is a contribution to EUR-OCEANS Network of Excellence (WP4-SYSMS-1101).
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