Temperature effects on asexual reproduction rates of scyphozoan species from the northwest Mediterranean Sea
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In recent decades, many areas worldwide have experienced mass occurrences of jellyfish. To determine how temperature may affect jellyfish populations in the northwest (NW) Mediterranean Sea, we maintained polyps of three scyphozoan species, Aurelia aurita, Rhizostoma pulmo, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata in the laboratory at three temperatures (14, 21, 28°C) to test effects on survival and production of new polyps and ephyrae. Temperature significantly affected survival of all species, with longest survival of A. aurita and R. pulmo at 14°C and of C. tuberculata at 21°C. More polyps were budded by all species at temperatures above 14°C. A. aurita produced the most buds polyp−1 (43.5) and R. pulmo the fewest (8.8). Strobilation occurred only at 14°C for A. aurita and at 21°C for C. tuberculata. For R. pulmo, fewer polyps strobilated and strobilated later at 14°C. These patterns of survival and asexual reproduction were seasonally appropriate for each species in the NW Mediterranean, where A. aurita medusae occur earliest (~April–May) in cool waters, followed by R. pulmo during May–June, and then by C. tuberculata in mid-summer. Comparisons among scyphozoan species suggested that many may be restricted by low temperatures, and that global warming may benefit temperate species, but not tropical or boreal species.
KeywordsGlobal warming Temperature Jellyfish Zooplankton Bloom Climate
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We thank the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) for funding the Medusa Project, Miriam Gentile for maintaining the jellyfish cultures, and reviewers for their helpful suggestions.
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