Hemispheric Scale

  • Susana E. DamboreneaEmail author
  • Javier Echevarría
  • Sonia Ros-Franch
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences book series (BRIEFSEARTHSYST)


On the basis of the distribution of benthonic Jurassic bivalve genera in the Southern Hemisphere paleobiogeographic units (biochoremas) were characterized according to their biologic contents (mainly levels of endemism and BSN analysis). Two first-order paleobiogeographic units are recognized for this region: Tethyan and South Pacific. Their evolution through time is followed from the Triassic to the earliest Cretaceous. The Tethyan unit was undoubtedly the most mature and persistent, with five subordinate units in this part of the world at different times: an Australian unit restricted to the Late Triassic, a North Andean unit, which appeared sporadically as an endemic center, a South Tethyan unit (Iran and Arabia), an SE Tethyan unit (Himalayas) already present in the Triassic but well established from Middle Jurassic, and an East African unit which is recognizable from Bajocian times onwards. From Late Triassic times a South Pacific first-order unit is also evident, with a persistent Maorian biochorema and a South Andean unit identifiable through most of the Jurassic. Being a transitional biogeographic setting between Tethyan and South Pacific first-order units, the South Andean one is included in the South Pacific due to the common presence of antitropical genera. The East African unit is included within the Tethyan during the Jurassic, but later, in Early Cretaceous times, it split into two units, one of which was regarded as part of the “South Temperate Realm” by Kauffman. The rank of all these units changed with time. The evolution of the paleobiogeographic patterns with time also reveals the nearly complete disruption as a consequence of the Triassic/Jurassic biotic crisis, with almost no units recognizable for the earliest Jurassic.


Southern Hemisphere Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Middle Triassic Early Jurassic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© The Author(s) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susana E. Damborenea
    • 1
    Email author
  • Javier Echevarría
    • 1
  • Sonia Ros-Franch
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento Paleontología InvertebradosMuseo de Ciencias Naturales La PlataLa PlataArgentina

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