Advertisement

Aeromonadaceae Representative (Aeromonas salmonicida)

  • Brian Austin
  • Dawn A. Austin
Chapter

Abstract

Aeromonas salmonicida is a significant pathogen of salmonids, and in its atypical form has spread into cyprinids and marine flatfish. Although Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is homogeneous, atypical isolates are more heterogeneous and do not fit into the current subspecies classification. Questions about the ecology of the organism remain but the consensus is that despite earlier work, cells exist in the aquatic environment although largely in a nonculturable form. Diagnostics have moved towards the use of sensitive and specific molecular methods. Disease control has focused on prophylaxis principally by vaccination, probiotics and immunostimulants.

References

  1. Ackerman, P.A., Iwama, G.K. and Thornton, J.C. (2000) Physiological and immunological effects of adjuvanted Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines on juvenile rainbow trout. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12, 157–164.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, A., Auchinachie, N., Bundy, A., Tatner, M.F. and Horne, M.T. (1988) The potency of adjuvanted injected vaccines in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) and bath vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) against furunculosis. Aquaculture 69, 15–26.Google Scholar
  3. Albrektsen, S., Snadnes, K., Glette, J. and Waagbo, R. (1995). The influence of dietary vitamin B6 on tissue vitamin B6 contents and immunity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquaculture Research 26, 331–339.Google Scholar
  4. Allen, D.A. (1982) Bacteria associated with freshwater fish farming, with emphasis on the fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Allen, D.A., Austin, B. and Colwell, R.R. (1983a) Aeromonas media, a new species isolated from river water. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 33, 599–604.Google Scholar
  6. Allen, D.A., Austin, B. and Colwell, R.R. (1983b) Numerical taxonomy of bacterial isolates associated with a freshwater fishery. Journal of General Microbiology 129, 2043–2062.Google Scholar
  7. Allen-Austin, D., Austin, B. and Colwell, R.R. (1984) Survival of Aeromonas salmonicida in river water. FEMS Microbiology Letters 21, 143–146.Google Scholar
  8. Amlacher, E. (1961) Taschenbuch der Fischkrankheiten. Jena, Gustav Fisher Verlag, 286p.Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, D.P. (1973) Investigations of the lipopolysaccharide fractions from Aeromonas salmonicida smooth and rough forms. In: Symposium on the Major Communicable Fish Diseases in Europe and their Control. Rome, United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization, p.175–179.Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, D.P. and Siwicki, A.K. (1994) Duration of protection against Aeromonas salmonicida in brook trout immunostimulated with glucan or chitosan by injection or immersion. Progressive Fish Culturist 56, 258–261.Google Scholar
  11. Aoki, T., Egusa, S., Kimura, T. and Watanabe, T. (1971) Detection of R factors in naturally occurring Aeromonas salmonicida strains. Applied Microbiology 22, 716–717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aoki, T., Kitao, T., Iemura, N., Mitoma, Y. and Nomura, T. (1983) The susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida strains isolated in cultured and wild salmonids to various chemotherapeutants. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 49, 17–22.Google Scholar
  13. Arkwright, J.A. (1912) An epidemic disease affecting salmon and trout in England during the summer of 1911. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 12, 391–413.Google Scholar
  14. Arnesen, J.A. and Eggset, G. (1999) Isolation and characterisation of two extracellular metalloproteases from Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 22, 35–43.Google Scholar
  15. Arnesen, K.R., Mikkelsen, H., Schrøder, M.B. and Lund, V. (2010) Impact of reattaching various Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer proteins on vaccine efficacy in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Vaccine 28, 4703–4708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Austin, B. (1993) Recovery of ‘atypical’ isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida, which grow at 37°C, from ulcerated non-salmonids in England. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 165–168.Google Scholar
  17. Austin, B. and Rodgers, C.J. (1981) Preliminary observations on Aeromonas salmonicida vaccines. Development in Biological Standardization 49, 387–393.Google Scholar
  18. Austin, B., Rayment, J. and Alderman, D.J. (1983b) Control of furunculosis by oxolinic acid. Aquaculture 31, 101–108.Google Scholar
  19. Austin, B., Bishop, I., Gray, C., Watt, B. and Dawes, J. (1986). Monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the rapid diagnosis of clinical cases of enteric redmouth and furunculosis in fish farms. Journal of Fish Diseases 9, 469–474.Google Scholar
  20. Austin, D.A., McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1989) Taxonomy of fish associated Aeromonas spp., with the description of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia subsp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 11, 277–290.Google Scholar
  21. Austin, B., Stuckey, L.F., Robertson, P.A.W., Effendi and Griffith, D.R.W. (1995b) A probiotic strain of Vibrio alginolyticus effective in reducing diseases caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio ordalii. Journal of Fish Diseases 18, 93–96.Google Scholar
  22. Austin, B., Austin, D.A., Dalsgaard, I., Gudmundsdóttir, B.K., Høie, S., Thornton, J.M., Larsen, J.L., O’Hici, B. and Powell, R. (1998) Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida by different methods. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 21, 50–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Barnes, A.C., Lewin, C.S., Hastings, T.S. and Amyes, S.G.B. (1990a) Cross resistance between oxytetracycline and oxolinic acid in Aeromonas salmonicida associated with alterations in outer membrane proteins, FEMS Microbiology Letters 72, 337–340.Google Scholar
  24. Barnes, A.C., Lewin, C.S., Hastings, T.S. and Amyes, S.G.B. (1990b) In vitro activities of 4-quinolones against the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 34, 1819–1820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Barnes, A.C., Lewin, C.S., Hastings, T.S. and Amyes, S.G.B. (1991a) In vitro susceptibility of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida to flumequine. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 35, 2634–2635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Barnes, A.C., Amyes, S.G.B., Hastings, T.S. and Lewin, C.S. (1991b) Fluoroquinolones display rapid bactericidal activity and low mutation frequencies against Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 661–667.Google Scholar
  27. Barnes, A.C., Lewin, C.S., Hastings, T.S. and Amyes, S.G.B. (1992) Alterations in outer membrane proteins identified in a clinical isolate of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 279–282.Google Scholar
  28. Barnes, A.C., Hastings, T.S. and Amyes, S.G. (1994) Amoxycillin resistance in Scottish isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 17, 357–363. Google Scholar
  29. Barry, T., Powell, R. and Gannon, F. (1990) A general method to generate DNA probes for microorganisms. Biotechnology 8, 233–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bast, L., Daly, J.G., DeGrandis, S.A. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1988) Evaluation of profiles of Aeromonas salmonicida as epidemiological markers of furunculosis infections in fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 11, 133–145.Google Scholar
  31. Belland, R.J. and Trust, T.J. (1985) Synthesis, export, and assembly of Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer analyzed by transposon mutagenesis. Journal of Bacteriology 163, 877–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Belland, R.J. and Trust, T.J. (1988) DNA:DNA reassociation analysis of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 134, 307–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Belland, R.J. and Trust, T.J. (1989) Aeromonas salmonicida plasmids: plasmid-directed syntheisis of proteins in vitro and in Escherichia coli minicells. Journal of General Microbiology 135, 513–524.Google Scholar
  34. Bergh, Ø., Hjeltnes, B. and Skiftesvik, A.B. (1997) Experimental infection of turbot Scophthalmus maximus and halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk sac larvae with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 29, 13–20.Google Scholar
  35. Bernoth, E.-M. (1990) Autoagglutination, growth on tryptone-soy-Coomassie-agar, outer membrane protein patterns and virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 145–155.Google Scholar
  36. Bernoth, E.-M., Ellis, A.E., Midtlyng, P.J., Olivier, G. and Smith, P. (1997) Furunculosis Multidisciplinary Fish Disease Research. San Diego, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Björnsdóttir, B., Gudmundsdóttir, S., Bambir and Gudmundsdóttir, B.K. (2005) Experimental infection of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and evaluation of cross protection induced by a furunculosis vaccine. Journal of Fish Diseases 28, 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Blake, I. (1935) Some observations on other bacterial diseases of fish, with particular reference to the vascular and tissue reactions in these infections. In: Adamson, W. and Baxton, N. (eds), Final Report of the Furunculosis Committee. Edinburgh, H.M.S.O., p.1–13.Google Scholar
  39. Blake, I. and Anderson, E.J.M. (1930) The identification of Bacillus salmonicida by the complement fixation test - a further contribution to the study of furunculosis of the Salmonidae. Fisheries Board of Scotland, Salmon Fisheries No. 1. Edinburgh, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  40. Blake, I. and Clark, J.C. (1931) Observations on experimental infection of trout by B. salmonicida, with particular reference to 'carriers' of furunculosis and to certain factors influencing susceptibility. Fisheries Board of Scotland, Salmon Fisheries No. 7 . Edinburgh, H.M.S.O., p.1–13.Google Scholar
  41. Bonet, R., Simon-Pujol, M.D. and Congregado, F. (1993) Effects of nutrients on exopolysaccharide production and surface properties of Aeromonas salmonicida. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59, 2437–2441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Bootsma, R., Fijan, N. and Blommaert, J. (1977) Isolation and identification of the causative agent of carp erythrodermatitis. Veterinarski Archiv 47, 291–302.Google Scholar
  43. Bowser, P.R. and House, M. (1990) In vitro sensitivity of some fish pathogens to the quinolones nalidixic acid and oxolinic acid and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 10, 48–49.Google Scholar
  44. Braun, M., Stuber, K., Schlatter, Y., Wahli, T., Kuhnert, P. and Frey, J. (2002) Characterization of an ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin (AexT) from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 184, 1851–1858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Bricknell, I.R. (1995) A reliable method for the induction of experimental furunculosis. Journal of Fish Diseases 18, 127–133.Google Scholar
  46. Brocklebank, J.R. (1998) Ulcerative dermatitis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida spp. salmonicida in farmed Atlantic salmon in British Columbia. Revue Vetérinaire Canadienne 39, 110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Broom, A.K. and Sneath, P.H.A. (1981) Numerical taxonomy of Haemophilus. Journal of General Microbiology 126, 123–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Bucke, D. (1979) Investigation into the cause of an epizootic in perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). In: O'Hara, K. (ed.), Proceedings of the First British Freshwater Fish Conference. London, University of Liverpool, Janssen Services, p.45.Google Scholar
  49. Buckley, J.T., Halasa, L.N. and MacIntyre, S. (1982) Purification and partial characterization of a bacterial phospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 257, 3320–3325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Bullock, G.L. (1966) Precipitins and agglutinin reactions of aeromonads isolated from fish and other sources. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 65, 805–824.Google Scholar
  51. Bullock, G.L. and Stuckey, H.M. (1975b) Fluorescent antibody identification and detection of the Corynebacterium causing kidney disease of salmonids. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 2224–2227.Google Scholar
  52. Bullock, G.L., Cipriano, R.C. and Schill, W.B. (1997) Culture and serodiagnostic detection of Aeromonas salmonicida from covertly-infected rainbow trout given the stress-induced furunculosis test. Biomedical Letters 55, 169–177.Google Scholar
  53. Burr, S.E., Stuber, K., Wahli, T. and Frey, J. (2002) Evidence for a type III secretion system in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 184, 5966–5970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Burr, S.E., Stuber, K. and Frey, J. (2003a) The ADP-ribosylating toxin AexT from Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is translocated via a type III secretion pathway. Journal of Bacteriology 185, 6583–6591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Burr, S.E., Wahli, T., Segner, H., Pugovkin, D. and Frey, J. (2003b) Association of type III secretion genes with virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 57, 167–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Burr, S.E., Pugovkin, D., Wahli, T., Segner, H. and Frey, J. (2005) Attenuated virulence of an Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type III secretion mutant in a rainbow trout model. Microbiology 151, 2111–2118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Byers, H.K., Gudkovs, N. and Crane, M.St.J. (2002a) PCR-based assays for the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. 1. Evaluation of three PCR primer sets for detection and identification. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 49, 129–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Byers, H.K., Cipriano, R.C., Gudkovs, N. and Crane, M.St.J. (2002b) PCR-based assays for the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. II. Further evaluation and validation of three PCR primer sets with infected fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 49, 139–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Carballo, J., Seoane, R.M. and Nieto, T.P. (2000) Adhesion of Aeromonas salmonicida to materials used in aquaculture. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 20, 77–82.Google Scholar
  60. Charette, S.J., Brochu, F., Boyle, B., Filion, G., Tanaka, K.H. and Derome, N. (2012) Draft genome sequence of the virulent strain 01-B525 of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 194, 722–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Chart, H. and Trust, T.J. (1983) Acquisition of iron by Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 156, 758–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Chester, F.D. (1897) A preliminary arrangement of the species of the genus Bacterium. Contributions to determinative bacteriology. Part 1. Ninth Annual Report, Delaware College Agricultural Experimental Station, 92 p.Google Scholar
  63. Chomarat, M., GuerinFaublee, V., Kodjo, A., Breysse, F. and Flandrois, J.P. (1998) Molecular analysis of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Revue de Medecine Vetérinaire 149, 245–250.Google Scholar
  64. Cipriano, R.C. (1982a) Immunization of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) against Aeromonas salmonicida: immunogenicity of virulent and avirulent isolates and protective ability of different antigens. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 39, 218–221.Google Scholar
  65. Cipriano, R.C. (1982b) Furunculosis in brook trout: infection by contact exposure. Progressive Fish Culturist 44, 12–14.Google Scholar
  66. Cipriano, R.C. (1983) Resistance of salmonids to Aeromonas salmonicida: relation between agglutinins and neutralizing activities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112, 95–99.Google Scholar
  67. Cipriano, R.C., Griffin, B.R. and Lidgerding, B.C. (1981) Aeromonas salmonicida: relationship between extracellular growth products and isolate virulence. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38, 1322–1326.Google Scholar
  68. Cipriano, R.C. and Starliper, C.E. (1982) Immersion and injection vaccination of salmonids against furunculosis with an avirulent strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. Progressive Fish Culturist 44, 167–169.Google Scholar
  69. Cipriano, R.C., Ford, L.A., Teska, J.D. and Hale, L.E. (1992) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in the mucus of salmonid fishes. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 4, 14–118.Google Scholar
  70. Cipriano, R.C., Bullock, G.L. and Noble, A. (1996a) Nature of Aeromonas salmoncida carriage on asymptomatic rainbow trout maintained in a culture system with recirculating water and fluidized sand biofilters. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 8, 47–51.Google Scholar
  71. Cipriano, R.C., Ford, L.A., Teska, J.D., Schachte, J.H., Petrie, C., Novak, B.M. and Flint, D.E. (1996b). Use of non-lethal procedures to detect and monitor Aeromonas salmonicida in potentially endangered or threatened populations of migrating and post-spawning salmon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 27, 233–236.Google Scholar
  72. Cipriano, R.C., Ford, L.A., Starliper, C.E., Teska, J.D., Nelson, J.T. and Jensen, B.N. (1996c) Control of external Aeromonas salmonicida: topical disinfection of salmonids with chloramine T. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 8, 52–57.Google Scholar
  73. Cipriano, R.C., Ford, L.A., Nelson, J.T. and Jenson, B.N. (1996d) Monitoring for early detection of Aeromonas salmonicida to enhance antibiotic therapy and control furunculosis in Atlantic salmon. Progressive Fish Culturist 58, 203–208.Google Scholar
  74. Cipriano, R.C., Ford, L.A., Smith, D.R., Schachte, J.H. and Petrie, C.J. (1997) Differences in detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in covertly infected salmonid fishes by the stress-inducible furunculosis test and culture-based assays. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 108–113.Google Scholar
  75. Cipriano, R.C. and Bullock, G.L. (2001) Evaluation of commercially prepared transport systems for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 13, 96–104.Google Scholar
  76. Cisar, J.O. and Fryer, J.L. (1974) Characterization of anti-Aeromonas salmonicida antibodies from coho salmon. Infection and Immunity 9, 236–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Colwell, R.R., MacDonell, M.T. and De Ley, J. (1986) Proposal to recognize the family Aeromonadaceae fam. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 36, 473–477.Google Scholar
  78. Cornick, J.W., Chudyk, R.V. and McDermott, L.A. (1969) Habitat and viability studies on Aeromonas salmonicida, causative agent of furunculosis. Progressive Fish Culturist 31, 90–93.Google Scholar
  79. Cowan, S.T. (1974) Cowan and Steel's Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, 2nd edn. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  80. Csaba, Gy., Körmendy, B. and Békési, L. (1981a) Observations on the causative agent of carp erythrodermatitis in Hungary. The Proceedings of an International Seminar on Fish, Pathogens and Environment in European Polyculture, Szarvas, Hungary, p.95–110.Google Scholar
  81. Csaba, Gy., Prigli, M., Békési, L., Kovács-Gayer, E., Bajmócy, E. and Fazekas, B. (1981b) Septicaemia in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Val.) and bighead (Aristichthys nobilis Rich.) caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens. In: Oláh, J., Molnár, K. and Jeney, S. (eds), Fish, Pathogens and Environment in European Polyculture, Szarvas, F. Muller (Fisheries Research Institute), p. 111–123.Google Scholar
  82. Dacanay, A., Knickle, L., Solanky, K.S., Boyd, J.M., Walter, J.A., Brown, L.L., Johnson, S.C. and Reith, M. (2006) Contribution of the type III secretion system (TTSS) to virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Microbiology 152, 1847–1856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Dacanay, A., Boyd, J.M., Fast, M.D., Knickle, L.C. and Reith, M.E. (2010) Aeromonas salmonicida Type I pilus system contributes to host colonization but not invasion. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 88, 199–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Dalsgaard, I., Nielsen, B. and Larsen, J.L. (1994) Characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida: a comparative study of strains of different geographic origin. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 77, 21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Dalsgaard, I., Gudmundsdóttir, B.K., Helgason, S., Høie, S., Thoresen, O.F., Wichardt, U.-P. and Wiklund, T. (1998) Identification of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida: inter-laboratory evaluation and harmonization of methods. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84, 999–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1985a) Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50, 868–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, .R.M.W. (1985b) Importance of culturing several organs to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114, 909–910.Google Scholar
  88. Daly, J.G., Kew, A.K., Moore, A.R. and Olivier, G. (1996) The cell surface of Aeromonas salmonicida determines in vitro survival in cultivated brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) peritoneal macrophages. Microbial Pathogenesis 21, 447–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Davis, H.S. (1946) Care and diseases of trout. Research Report, United States Fisheries and Wildlife Service 12, 98.Google Scholar
  90. Deere, D., Porter, J., Pickup, R.W. and Edwards, C. (1996a) Survival of cells and DNA of Aeromonas salmonicida released into aquatic microcosms. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 81, 309–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Deere, D., Porter, J., Pickup, R. and Edwards, C. (1996b) Direct analysis of starved Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 19, 459–467.Google Scholar
  92. Donlon, J., McGettigan, S., O'Brien, P. and O'Carra, P. (1983) Reappraisal of the nature of the pigment produced by Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 19, 285–290.Google Scholar
  93. Dooley, J.S.G., Engelhardt, H., Baumeister, W., Kay, W.W. and Trust, T.J. (1989) Three-dimensional structure of an open form of the surface layer from the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 171, 190–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Dror, M., Sinyakov, M.S., Okun, E., Dym, M., Sredni, B. and Avtalion, R.R. (2006) Experimental handling stress as infection-facilitating factor for the goldfish ulcerative disease. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 109, 279–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Dubois-Darnaudpeys, A. (1977a) Epidemiologie de la furonculose des salmonides. II. Etude experimentale de divers facteurs microbiotiques de l'environment. Bulletin Français de Pisciculture 49, 128–133.Google Scholar
  96. Dubois-Darnaudpeys, A. (1977b) Epidemiologie de la furonculose des salmonides. III. Ecologie de Aeromonas salmonicida proposition d'un modele epidemiologique. Bulletin Français de Pisciculture 50, 21–32.Google Scholar
  97. Duff, D.C.B. (1937) Dissociation in Bacillus salmonicida, with special reference to the appearance of the G form of culture. Journal of Bacteriology 34, 49–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Duff, D.C.B. (1939) Some serological relationships of the S, R and G phases of Bacillus salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 38, 91–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Duff, D.C.B. (1942) The oral immunization of trout against Bacterium salmonicida. Journal of Immunology 44, 87–94.Google Scholar
  100. Duff, D.C.B. and Stewart, B. (1933) Studies on furunculosis of fish in British Columbia. Contributions of Canadian Biology and Fisheries, 8, No. 8, Series A, General Number 35, 103.Google Scholar
  101. Duguid, J.P. and Old, D.C. (1980) Adhesive properties of Enterobacteriaceae. In: Beachey, E.H. (ed.), Receptors and Recognition, Series B, vol. 6. London, Chapman and Hall, p.185–217.Google Scholar
  102. Duncan (1932) Cited by McCraw (1952)Google Scholar
  103. Durbin, M., McIntosh, D., Smith, P.D., Wardle, R. and Austin, B. (1999) Immunization against furunculosis in rainbow trout with iron-regulated outer membrane protein vaccines: relative efficacy of immersion, oral and injection delivery. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 11, 68–75.Google Scholar
  104. Ebanks, E.O., Goguen, M., McKinnon, S., Pinto, D.M. and Ross, N.W. (2005) Identification of the major outer membrane proteins of Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68, 29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Ebanks, R.O., Knickle, L.C., Goguen, M., Boyd, J.M., Pinto, D.M., Reith, M. and Ross, N.W. (2006) Expression of and secretion through the Aeromonas salmonicida type III secretion system. Microbiology 152, 1275–1286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Eddy, B.P. (1960) Cephalotrichous, fermentative Gram-negative bacteria: the genus Aeromonas. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 23, 216–248.Google Scholar
  107. Eddy, B.P. (1962) Further studies on Aeromonas. I. Additional strains and supplementary biochemical tests. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 25, 137–146.Google Scholar
  108. Eddy, B.P. and Carpenter, K.P. (1964) Further studies on Aeromonas. II. Taxonomy of Aeromonas and C27 strains. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 27, 96–100.Google Scholar
  109. Effendi, I. and Austin, B. (1991) Survival of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida in seawater. FEMS Microbiology Letters 84, 103–106.Google Scholar
  110. Effendi, I. and Austin, B. (1993) A rapid method for the determination of viability of Aeromonas salmonicida in seawater. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 13, 171–173.Google Scholar
  111. Effendi, I. and Austin, B. (1994) Survival of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida in the marine environment. Journal of Fish Diseases 17, 375–385.Google Scholar
  112. Effendi, I. and Austin, B. (1995a) Dormant/unculturable cells of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Microbial Ecology 30, 183–192.Google Scholar
  113. Effendi, I. and Austin, B. (1995b) Uptake of Aeromonas salmonicida by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 15, 115–118.Google Scholar
  114. Eggset, G., Mortensen, A., Johansen, L.-H. and Sommer, A.-I. (1997) Susceptibility to furunculosis, cold water vibriosis, and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in post-smolt Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a function of smolt status by seawater transfer. Aquaculture 158, 179–191.Google Scholar
  115. Ehlinger, N.F. (1964) Selective breeding of trout for resistance to furunculosis. New York Fish and Game Journal 11, 78–90.Google Scholar
  116. Ehlinger, N.F. (1977) Selective breeding of trout for resistance to furunculosis. New York Fish and Game Journal 24, 25–36.Google Scholar
  117. El Morabit, A., García-Márquez, S. and Santos, Y. (2004) Is sea lamprey a potential source of infection with Aeromonas salmonicida for wild and farmed fish? Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24, 100–103.Google Scholar
  118. Elliott, D.G. and Shotts, E.B. (1980) Aetiology of an ulcerative disease in goldfish Carassius auratus (L.): microbiological examination of diseased fish from seven locations. Journal of Fish Diseases 3, 13–143.Google Scholar
  119. Ellis, A.E., Hastings, T.S. and Munro, A.L.S. (1981) The role of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products in the pathology of furunculosis. Journal of Fish Diseases 4, 41–51.Google Scholar
  120. Ellis, A.E. and Grisley, M.S. (1985) Serum antiproteases of salmonids: studies on the inhibition of trypsin and the proteolytic activity of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. London, Academic Press, p.85–96.Google Scholar
  121. Ellis, A.E., Burrows, A.S. and Stapleton, K.J. (1988a) Lack of relationship between virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida and the putative virulence factors: A-layer, extracellular proteases and extracellular haemolysins. Journal of Fish Diseases 11, 309–323.Google Scholar
  122. Ellis, A.E., Burrows, A.S., Hastings, T.S. and Stapleton, K.J. (1988b) Identification of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular proteases as a protective antigen against furunculosis by passive immunization. Aquaculture 70, 207–218.Google Scholar
  123. Ellis, A.E. and Stapleton, K.J. (1988) Differential susceptibility of salmonid fishes to furunculosis correlates with differential serum enhancement of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular protease activity. Microbial Pathogenesis 4, 299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ellis, A.E., doVale, A., Bowden, T.J., Thompson, K. and Hastings, T.S. (1997) In vivo production of A-protein, lipopolysaccharide, iron-regulated outer membrane proteins and 70-kDa serine protease by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 149, 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Elston, R., Drum, A.S. and Bunnell, P.R. (1995) Efficacy of orally administered difloxacin for the treatment of Atlantic salmon held in seawater. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 7, 22–28.Google Scholar
  126. Embody, G.C. and Hayford, C.O. (1925) The advantage of rearing brook trout fingerlings from selected breeders. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 55, 135–142.Google Scholar
  127. Emmerich, R. and Weibel, E. (1894) Über eine durch Bakterien erzengte Seuche unter den Forellen. Archives für Hygiene und Bakteriologie 21, 1–21.Google Scholar
  128. Endo, T., Ogishima, K., Hayasaki, H., Kaneko, S. and Ohshima, S. (1973) Application of oxolinic acid as a chemotherapeutic agent for treating infectious diseases in fish. I. Antibacterial activity, chemotherapeutic effect and pharmacokinetic effect of oxolinic acid in fish. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 3, 165–171.Google Scholar
  129. Evelyn, T.P.T. (1971a) An aberrant strain of the bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from a marine host, the sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) and from two species of cultured Pacific salmon. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28, 1629–1634.Google Scholar
  130. Evenberg, D. and Lugtenberg, B. (1982) Cell surface of the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. II. Purification and characterization of a major cell envelope protein related to autoagglutination. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 684, 249–254.Google Scholar
  131. Evenberg, D., van Boxtel, R., Lugtenberg, B., Frank, S., Blommaert, J. and Bootsma, R. (1982) Cell surface of the fish pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. 1. Relationship between autoagglutination and the presence of a major cell envelope protein. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 684, 241–248.Google Scholar
  132. Ewart, K.V., Williams, J., Richards, R.C., Gallant, J.W., Melville, K. and Douglas, S.E. (2008) The early response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) macrophages exposed in vitro to Aeromonas salmonicida cultured in broth and in fish. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 32, 380–390.Google Scholar
  133. Ewing, W.H., Hugh, R. and Johnson, J.G. (1961) Studies on the Aeromonas group. United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center. 37p.Google Scholar
  134. Fabre-Domerque, J.P. (1890) On a disease of fish. Compte Rendu Memoranda du Société Biologique, Paris 42, 127–129.Google Scholar
  135. Falco, A., Frost, P., Miest, J., Pionnier, N., Irnazarow, I. and Hoole, D. (2012) Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed wirg ß-glucan supplements. Fish & Shellfish Immunology doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.02.028
  136. Farto, R., Milton, D.L., Bermúdez, M.B. and Nieto, T.P. (2011) Colonization of turbot tissues by virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains during infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 95, 167–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Fehr, D., Casanova, C., Liverman, A., Blazkova, H., Orth, K., Dobbelaere, D., Frey, J. and Burr, S.E. (2006) AopP, a type III effector protein of Aeromonas salmonicida, inhibits the NF-?B signalling pathway. Microbiology 152, 28092818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Ferguson, Y., Glover, L.A., McGillivray, D.M. and Prosser, J.I. (1995) Survival and activity of lux-marked Aeromonas salmonicida in seawater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61, 3494–3498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Ferguson, Y., Bricknell, I.R., Glover, L.A., MacGregor, D.M. and Prosser, J.I. (1998) Colonissation and transmission of lux-marked and wild type Aeromonas salmonicida strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). FEMS Microbiology Ecology 27, 251–260.Google Scholar
  140. Fernandes, P.B., Hanson, C.W., Stamm, J.M., Chu, D.T.W., Bailer, R. and Vojtko, C. (1987) The frequency of in vitro resistance development to fluoroquinolones and the use of a murine pyelonephritis model to demonstrate selection of resistance in vivo. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 19, 446–449.Google Scholar
  141. Fernandez, A.I.G., Fernández, A.F., Pérez, M.J., Nieto, T.P. and Ellis, A.E. (1998) Siderophore production by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Lack of strain specificity. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 33, 87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Field, J.B., Gee, L.L., Elvehjem, C.A. and Juday, C. (1944) The blood picture in furunculosis induced by Bacterium salmonicida in fish. Archives of Biochemistry 3, 277–284.Google Scholar
  143. Fijan, N.N. (1972) Infectious dropsy of carp - a disease complex. Proceedings of the Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 30, 39–57.Google Scholar
  144. Fischel, D. and Enoch, H.P. (1892) Cited by Wiliamson (1929).Google Scholar
  145. Ford, L.A. (1994) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida from water using a filtration method. Aquaculture 122, 1–7.Google Scholar
  146. Ford, L.A., Barbash, P.A. and Cipriano, R.C. (1998) Control of furunculosis and enteric redmouth disease in sea run salmon broodstock in the Connecticut and Merrimack rivers. Progressive Fish Culturist 60, 88–94.Google Scholar
  147. Forel, F. (1868) Red disease of trout. Bulletin de la Société Vandoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne 9, 599–608.Google Scholar
  148. Frerichs, G.N., Millar, S.D. and McManus, C. (1992) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from health wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 12, 48–49.Google Scholar
  149. Fryer, J.L., Hedrick, R.P., Park, J.W. and Hah, Y.C. (1988) Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from masu salmon in the Republic of Korea. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 24, 364–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Fuller, D.W., Pilcher, K.S. and Fryer, J.L. (1977) A leucocytolytic factor isolated from cultures of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34, 1118–1125.Google Scholar
  151. Fyfe, L., Finley, A., Coleman, G. and Munro, A.L.S. (1986) A study of the pathological effect of isolated Aeromnas salmonicida extracellular protease on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 9, 403–409.Google Scholar
  152. Fyfe, L., Coleman, G. and Munro, A.L.S. (1987a) Identification of major common extracellular proteins secreted by Aeromonas salmonicida strains isolated from diseased fish. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 53, 722–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Fyfe, L., Coleman, G. and Munro, A.L.S. (1987b) A comparative study of the formation of extracellular proteins by Aeromonas salmonicida at two different temperatures. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 62, 367–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Garduño, R.A., Thornton, J.C. and Kay, W.W. (1993a) Fate of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida in the peritoneal cavity of rainbow trout. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 39, 1051–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Garduño, R.A., Thornton, J.C. and Kay, W.W. (1993b) Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo. Infection and Immunity 61, 3854–3862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Garduño, R.A., Phipps, B.M. and Kay, W.W. (1994) Physiological consequences of the S-layer of Aeromonas salmonicida in relation to growth, temperature, and outer membrane permeation. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 40, 622–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Garduño, R.A. and Kay, W.W. (1995) Capsulated cells of Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vitro have different functional properties than capsulated cells grown in vivo. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41, 941–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Garduño, R.A., Kuzyk, M.A. and Kay, W.W. (1997) Structural and physiological determinants of resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida to reactive radicals. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 43, 1044–1053.Google Scholar
  159. Gayer, E.K., Bekesi, L. and Csaba, G. (1980) Some aspects of the histopathology of carp erythrodermatitis (CE). In: Ahne, W. (ed.), Fish Diseases, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p.127–136.Google Scholar
  160. Geldreich, E.E. (1977) Microbiology of water. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 69, 122–1244.Google Scholar
  161. Gibb, A. and Austin, B. (1994) A stable L-form of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Letters in Applied Microbiology 19, 473–476.Google Scholar
  162. Gibb, A., McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1996) Characterization of a stable L-form of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Letters in Applied Microbiology 23, 445–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Giles, J.S., Hariharan, H. and Heaney, S.B. (1995) The plasmid profiles of fish pathogenic isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, and Vibrio ordalii from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Canada. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41, 209–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Gjedrem, T. and Gjoen, H.M. (1995) Genetic variation in susceptibility of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., to furunculosis, BKD and cold water vibriosis. Aquaculture Research 26, 129–134.Google Scholar
  165. Godoy, M., herardelli, V., Heisinger, A., Fernández, J., Olmos, P., Ovalle, L., Ilardi, P. and Avendaño-Herrera, R. (2010) First description of atypical furunculosis in freshwater farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Chile. Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 441–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Goldschmidt-Clermont, E., Hochwrtner, O., Demarta, A., Caminada, A.-P. and Frey, J. (2009) Outbreaks of an ulcerative and haemorrhagic disease in Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 86, 81–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Goodwin, A.E. and Merry, G.E. (2009) Are all koi ulcer cases associated with infection by atypical Aeromonas salmonicida? Polymerase chain reaction assays of koi carp skin swabs submitted by hobbyists. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 21, 98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Graham, S., Jeffries, A.H. and Secombes, C.J. (1988) A novel assay to detect macrophage bacterial activity in fish: factors influencing the killing of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 11, 389–396.Google Scholar
  169. Griffin, P.J. (1953) The nature of bacteria pathogenic to fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 83, 241–253.Google Scholar
  170. Griffin, P.J., Snieszko, S.F. and Friddle, S.B. (1953a) A more comprehensive description of Bacterium salmonicida. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 82, 129–138.Google Scholar
  171. Griffin, P.J., Snieszko, S.F. and Friddle, S.B. (1953b) Pigment formation by Bacterium salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 65, 652–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Grisley, M.S., Ellis, A.E., Hastings, T.S. and Munro, A.L.S. (1984) An alpha-migrating anti-protease in normal salmonid plasma and its relationship to the neutralization of Aeromonas salmonicida toxins. In: Acuigrup (ed.), Fish Diseases, Fourth COPRAQ-Session. Madrid, Editora ATP, p.77–82.Google Scholar
  173. Grøntvedt, R.N., Lund, V. and Espelid, S. (2004) Atypical furunculosis in spotted wolffish (Anarhichas min or O.) juveniles: bath vaccination and challenge. Aquaculture 232, 69–80.Google Scholar
  174. Grove, S., Høie, S. and Evensen, Ø. (2003) Distribution and retention of antigens of Aeromnas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated with a ?aroA mutant or formalin-inactivated bacteria in oil-adjuvant. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 15, 349–358.Google Scholar
  175. Gudmundsdóttir, B.K. (1996) Comparison of extracellular proteases by Aeromonas salmonicida strains, isolated from various fish species. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 80, 105–113.Google Scholar
  176. Gudmundsdottir, B.K., Hasting, T.S. and Ellis, A.E. (1990) Isolation of a new toxic protease from a strain of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies achromogenes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9, 199–208.Google Scholar
  177. Gudmundsdóttir, B.K. and Gudmundsdóttir, S. (1997) Evaluation of cross protection by vaccines against atypical and typical furunculosis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 20, 343–350.Google Scholar
  178. Gudmundsdóttir, B.K., Jónsdóttir, H., Stenhorsdóttir, B., Magnadóttir and Gudmundsdóttir, S. (1997) Survival and humoral antibody response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated against Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes. Journal of Fish Diseases 20, 351–360.Google Scholar
  179. Gudmundsdóttir, B.K., Hvanndal, Í, Björnsdóttir, B. and Wagner, U. (2003) Analysis of exotoxins produced by atypical isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida, by enzymatic and serological methods. Journal of Fish Diseases 26, 15–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Gunnlaugsdóttir, B. and Gudmundsdóttir, B.K. (1997) Pathogenicity of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon compared with protease production. Journal of Applied Microbiology 83, 542–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Gutsell, J. (1946) Sulfa drugs and the treatment of furunculosis in trout. Science 104, 85–86.Google Scholar
  182. Hackett, J.L., Lynch, W.H., Paterson, W.D. and Coombs, D.H. (1984) Extracellular protease, extracellular hemolysis, and virulence in Aeromonas salmonicida. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 41, 1354–1360.Google Scholar
  183. Hahnel, G.B., Gould, R.W. and Boatman, E.S. (1983) Serological comparison of selected strains of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 6, 1–11.Google Scholar
  184. Hall, J.D. (1963) An ecological study of the chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus Girard, in the Manistee River, Michigan. Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA, 106Google Scholar
  185. Hamilton, A.J., Fallon, M.J.M., Alexander, J. and Canning, E.U. (1986) A modified enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for monitoring antibody production during experimental Aeromonas salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 10, 443–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Hamilton, R.C., Kalnins, H., Ackland, N.R. and Ashburner, L.D. (1981) An extra layer in the surface layers of an atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from Australian goldfish. Journal of General Microbiology 122, 363–366.Google Scholar
  187. Han, H.-J., Kim, D.-Y., Kim, W.-S., Kim, C.-S., Jung, S.-J., Oh, M.-J. and Kim, D.-H. (2011a) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in the black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf, in Korea. Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Hänninen, M.-L., Ridell, J. and Hirvelä-Koski, V. (1995) RAPD analysis of Aeromonas salmonicida Aeromonas hydrophila. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 79, 181–185.Google Scholar
  189. Hänninen, M.-L. and Hirvelä-Koski, V. (1997) Molecular and phenotypic methods for the characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. Veterinary Microbiology 56, 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Håstein, T. and Bullock, A.M. (1976) An acute septicaemic disease of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by a Pasteurella- like organism. Journal of Fish Biology 8, 23–26.Google Scholar
  191. Hastings, T.S. and Ellis, A.E. (1985) Differences in the production of haemolytic and proteolytic activities by various isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. London, Academic Press, p.69–77.Google Scholar
  192. Hastings, T.S. and McKay, A. (1987) Resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida to oxolinic acid. Aquaculture 61, 165–171.Google Scholar
  193. Hastings, T.S. and Ellis, A.E. (1988) The humoral immune response of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and rabbits to Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products. Journal of Fish Diseases 11, 147–160.Google Scholar
  194. Hedges, R.W., Smith, P. and Brazil, G. (1985) Resistance plasmids of aeromonads. Journal of General Microbiology 131, 2091–2095.Google Scholar
  195. Hellberg, H., Moksness, E. and Høie, S. (1996) Infection with atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in farmed common wolffish, Anarhichas lupus. Journal of Fish Diseases 19, 329–332.Google Scholar
  196. Hennigan, M., Vaughan, L.M., Foster, T.J., Smith, P. and Gannon, F. (1989) Characterization of Aeromonas salmonicida strains using DNA probe technology. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46, 877–879.Google Scholar
  197. Henery, M.A. and Secombes, C.J. (2000) The A-layer influences the susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida to antibacterial peptides. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10, 637–642.Google Scholar
  198. Herman, R.L. (1968) Fish furunculosis 1952–1966. Transactions of the American Fisheries 97, 221–230.Google Scholar
  199. Herman, R.L. (1972) A review of the prevention and treatment of furunculosis. FI: EIFAC 72/SC II Symposium 19, 1–6.Google Scholar
  200. Hikada, T., Yanohara, Y. and Shibata, T. (1983) On the causative bacteria of head ulcer disease in cultured eels. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kagoshima University 32, 147–165.Google Scholar
  201. Hiney, M., Dawson, M.T., Heery, D.M., Smith, P.R., Gannon, F. and Powell, R. (1992) DNA probe for Aeromonas salmonicida. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology 58, 1039–1042.Google Scholar
  202. Hiney, M.P., Kilmartin, J.J. and Smith, P.R. (1994) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon with asymptomatic furunculosis infections. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 19, 161–167.Google Scholar
  203. Hirst, I.D., Hastings, T.S. and Ellis, A.E. (1991) Siderophore production by Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 137, 1185–1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Hirst, I.D. and Ellis, A.E. (1996) Utilization of transferrin and salmon serum as sources of iron by typical and atypical strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Microbiology 142, 1543–1550.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Hirvelä-Koski, V., Koski, P. and Niiranen, H. (1994) Biochemical properties and drug resistance of Aeromonas salmonicida in Finland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 20, 191–196.Google Scholar
  206. Hjeltnes, B., Bergh, Ø., Wergeland, H. and Holm, J.C. (1995) Susceptibility of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus and wrasse (Labridae) to Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and the possibility of transmission of furunculosis from farmed salmon Salmo salar to marine fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 23, 25–31.Google Scholar
  207. Hoel, K., Salonius, K. and Lillehaug, A. (1997) Vibrio antigens of polyvalent vaccines enhance the humoral immune response to Aeromonas salmonicida antigens in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 7, 71–80.Google Scholar
  208. Hoel, K., Reitan, L.J. and Lillehaug, A. (1998a) Immunological cross reactions between Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rabbit. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8, 171–182.Google Scholar
  209. Hoel, K., Holstad, G. and Lillehaug, A. (1998b) Adjuvant activities of a Vibrio salmonicida bacterin on T-dependent and T-independent antigens in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 8, 287–293.Google Scholar
  210. Høi, L., Larsen, J.L., Dalsgaard, I. and Dalsgaard, A. (1998) Occurrence of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes in Danish marine environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Høie, S., Heum, M. and Thoresen, O.F. (1996) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida by polymerase chain reaction in Atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 6, 199–206.Google Scholar
  212. Høie, S., Heum, M. and Thoresen, O.F. (1997) Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection of Aeromonas salmonicida ss. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 30, 27–35.Google Scholar
  213. Holder-Franklin, M.A., Thorpe, A. and Cormier, C.J. (1981) Comparison of numerical taxonomy and DNA-DNA hybridization in diurnal studies of river bacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 27, 1165–1184.Google Scholar
  214. Horne, J.H. (1928) Furunculosis in trout and the importance of carriers in the spread of disease. Journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 28, 67–78.Google Scholar
  215. Hsu, H.-M., Bowser, P.R., Schachte, J.H. Jr., Scarlett, J.M. and Babish, J.G. (1995) Winter field trials of enrofloxacin for the control of Aeromonas salmonicida infection in salmonids. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 26, 307–314.Google Scholar
  216. Huntly, P.J., Coleman, G. and Munro, A.L.S. (1992) The nature of the lethal effect on Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., of a lipopolysaccharide-free phospholipase activity isolated from the extracellular products of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 99–102.Google Scholar
  217. Hussain, I., Mackie, C., Cox, D., Alderson, R. and Birkbeck, T.H. (2000) Suppression of the humoral immune response of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. by the 64 kDa serine protease of Aeromonas salmonicida . Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10, 359–373.Google Scholar
  218. Iida, T., Sakata, C., Kawatsu, H. and Kukuda, Y. (1997) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in cultured marine fish. Fish Pathology 32, 65–66.Google Scholar
  219. Inglis, V. and Richards, R.H. (1991) The in vitro susceptibility of Aeromonas salmonicida and other fish-pathogenic bacteria to 29 antimicrobial agents. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 641–650.Google Scholar
  220. Inglis, V., Robertson, D., Miller, K., Thompson, K.D. and Richards, R.H. (1996) Antibiotic protection against recrudescence of latent Aeromonas salmonicida during furunculosis vaccination. Journal of Fish Diseases 19, 341–348.Google Scholar
  221. Irie, T., Watarai, S., Iwasaki, T. and Kodama, H. (2005) Protection against experimental Aeromonas salmonicida infection in carp by oral immunisation with bacterial antigen entrapped liposomes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 18, 235–242.Google Scholar
  222. Ishiguro, E.E., Kay, W.W., Ainsworth, T., Chamberlain, J.B., Austen, R.A., Buckley, J.T. and Trust, T.J. (1981) Loss of virulence during culture of Aeromonas salmonicida at high temperature. Journal of Bacteriology 148, 333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Jiwa, S.F.H. (1983) Enterotoxigenicity, haemagglutination and cell-surface hydrophobicity in Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria and A. salmonicida. Veterinary Microbiology 8, 17–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Johnson, C.M., Tatner, M.F. and Horne, M.T. (1985) Comparison of the surface properties of seven strains of a fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Biology 27, 445–458.Google Scholar
  225. Johnson, K.A. and Amend, D.F. (1984) Potential for immersion vaccination against Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 7, 101–105.Google Scholar
  226. Jutfelt, F., Olsen, R.E., Glette, J., Ringø, E. and Sundell, K. (2006) Translocation of viable Aeromonas salmonicida across the intestine of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Jutfelt, F., Sundh, H., Glette, J., Mellander, L., Thrandur Björnsson, B. and Sundell, K. (2008) The involvement of Aeromonas salmonicida virulence factors in bacterial translocation across the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) intestine. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 141–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Kaku, Y., Yamada, Y. and Wakabayashi, H. (1999) Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from an epizootic ulcerative disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish Pathology 34, 155–162.Google Scholar
  229. Kaper, J.B., Sayler, G.S., Baldini, M.M. and Colwell, R.R. (1977) Ambient-temperature primary nonselective enrichment for isolation of Salmonella spp. from an estuarine environment. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 33, 829–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Karlsson, K.A. (1962) An investigation of the Aeromonas salmonicida haemolysin. Ninth Nordic Veterinary Cogress, Kobenhavn. Google Scholar
  231. Karlsson, K.A. (1964) Serological studies of Aeromonas salmonicida. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene 194, 73–80.Google Scholar
  232. Kawahara, E. and Kusuda, R (1987). Direct fluorescent antibody technique for diagnosis of bacterial disease in eel. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 53, 395–399.Google Scholar
  233. Kawahara, E., Oshima, S. and Nomura, S. (1990) Toxicity and immunogenicity of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products to salmonids. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 495–503.Google Scholar
  234. Kay, W.W., Buckley, J.T., Ishiguro, E.E., Phipps, B.M., Monette, J.P.L. and Trust, T.J. (1981) Purification and disposition of a surface protein associated with virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 147, 1077–1084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Kay, W.W., Phipps, B.M., Ishiguro, E.E. and Trust, T.J. (1985) Porphyrin binding by the surface array virulence protein of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 164, 1332–1336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Kay, W.W. and Trust, T.J. (1991) Form and functions of the regular surface array (S-layer) of Aeromonas salmonicida. Experientia 47, 412–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Kilian, M. (1976) A taxonomic study of the genus Haemophilus, with the proposal of a new species. Journal of General Microbiology 93, 9–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Kim, J.H., Son, J.S., Choi, Y.J., Choresca, C.H., Shin, S.P., Han, J.E., Jun, J.W., Kang, D.H., Oh, C., Heo, S.J. and Park, S.C. (2012a) Isolation and characterization of lytic Myoviridae bacteriophage PAS-1 with broad infectivity in Aeromonas salmonicida. Current Microbiology 64, 418–426.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Kim, J.S., Harikrishnan, R., Kim, M.-C., Balasundaram, C. and Heo, M.-S. (2012b) Broussonetia kazinoki as a feed additive enhances disease resistance against Streptococcus parauberis in Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish Pathology 47, 20–22.Google Scholar
  240. Kimura, T. (1969a) A new subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida as an etiological agent of furunculosis on 'Sakuramasu' (Oncorhynchus masou) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) rearing for maturity. Part 1. On the serological properties. Fish Pathology 3, 34–44.Google Scholar
  241. Kimura, T. (1969b) A new subspecies of Aeromonas salmonicida as an etiological agent of furunculosis on 'Sakuramasu' (Oncorhynchus masou) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) rearing for maturity. Part 2. On the morphological and physiological properties. Fish Pathology 3, 45–52.Google Scholar
  242. Kimura, T. (1970) Studies on a bacterial disease of adult 'Sakuramasu' (Oncorhynchus masou) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) reared for maturity. Scientific Report of the Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery 24, 9–100.Google Scholar
  243. King, C.H. and Shotts, E.B. (1988) Enhancement of Edwardsiella tarda and Aeromonas salmonicida through ingestion by the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 51, 95–100.Google Scholar
  244. Kitao, T., Yoshida, T., Aoki, T. and Fukudome, M. (1984) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of an ulcer disease of eel occurred in Kagoshima Prefecture. Fish Pathology 19, 113–117.Google Scholar
  245. Kitao, T. and Yoshida, Y. (1986) Effect of an immunopotentiator on Aeromonas salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12, 287–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Klontz, G.W. (1968) Oral immunization of coho salmon against furunculosis. In: Progress in Sport Fishery Research. B.S.R.W. Resource Publication 39, 81–82.Google Scholar
  247. Klontz, G.W., Yasutake, W.T. and Ross, A.J. (1966) Bacterial disease of the Salmonidae in the western United States: pathogenesis of furunculosis in rainbow trout. American Journal of Veterinary Research 27, 1455–1460.Google Scholar
  248. Klontz, G.W. and Anderson, D.P. (1968) Fluorescent antibody studies of isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida. Bulletin de l'office International des Epizooties 69, 1149–1157.Google Scholar
  249. Klontz, G.W. and Anderson, D.P. (1970) Oral immunization of salmonids: a review. In: Snieszko, S.F. (ed.), Symposium on Diseases of Fishes and Shellfishes. Washington D.C.., Special Publication, No. 5, American Fisheries Society, p.16–20.Google Scholar
  250. Klontz, G.W. and Wood, J.W. (1972) Observations on the epidemiology of furunculosis disease in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). FI:EIFAC 72/SC II Symposium 27, 1–8.Google Scholar
  251. Kluyver, A.J. and Van Niel, C.B. (1936) Prospects for a natural system of classification of bacteria. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Originale, 2 Abteilung 94, 369–403.Google Scholar
  252. Köllner, B. and Kotterba, G. (2002) Temperature dependent activation of leucocyte populations of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, after intraperitoneal immunisation with Aeromonas salmonicida. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 12, 35–48.Google Scholar
  253. Koppang, E.O., Fjølstad, M., Melgård, B., Vigerust, M. and Sørum, H. (2000) Non-pigment-producing isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida: isolation, identification, transmission and pathogenicity in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 39–48.Google Scholar
  254. Krantz, G.E., Reddecliff, J.M. and Heist, C.E. (1964a) Immune response of trout to Aeromonas salmonicida. Part 1. Development of agglutinating antibodies and protective immunity. Progressive Fish Culturist 26, 3–10.Google Scholar
  255. Krantz, G.E., Reddecliff, J.M. and Heist, C.E. (1964b) Immune response of trout to Aeromonas salmonicida. Part 2. Evaluation of feeding techniques. Progressive Fish Culturist 26, 65–69.Google Scholar
  256. Kumagai, A., Sugimoto, K., Itou, D., Kamaishi, T., Miwa, S. and Iida, T. (2006) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in cultured marbled sole Pleuronectes yokohamae. Fish Pathology 41, 7–12.Google Scholar
  257. Kwon, M.G., Lee, J.-Y., Park, S., Iida, T., Hirono, I. and Aoki, T. (1997) RAPD analysis of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated in Japan. Fish Pathology 32, 109–115.Google Scholar
  258. Laidler, L.A., Treasurer, J.W., Grant, A.N. and Cox, D.I. (1999) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in wrasse (Labridae) used as cleaner fish of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland. Journal of Fish Diseases 22, 209–213.Google Scholar
  259. Lehmann, K.B. and Neumann, R. (1896) Atlas und Grundress der Bakteriologie. München, J.F. Lehmann.Google Scholar
  260. Lewin, C.S. and Hastings, T.S. (1990) In vitro activities of oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin against Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 377–384.Google Scholar
  261. Liu, P.V. (1961) Observations on the specificities of extra-cellular antigens of the genera Aeromonas and Serratia. Journal of General Microbiology 24, 145–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Livesley, M.A., Smith, S.N., Armstrong, R.A. and Barker, G.A. (1997) Analysis of plasmid profile of Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. FEMS Microbiology Letters 146, 297–301.Google Scholar
  263. Lund, M. (1967) A study of the biology of Aeromonas salmonicida (Lehmann and Neumann 1896) Griffin 1954. M.Sc. thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, U.K.Google Scholar
  264. Lund, V., Jenssen, L.M. and Wesmajervi, M.S. (2002) Assessment of genetic variability and relatedness among atypical Aeromonas salmonicida from marine fishes, using AFLP fingerprinting. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 50, 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Lund, V., Arnesen, J.A., Coucheron, D., Modalsli, K. and Syvertsen, C. (2003) The Aeromonas salmonicida A-layer protein is an important protective antigen in oil-adjuvanted vaccines. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 15, 367–372.Google Scholar
  266. Lund, V., Espelid, S. and Mikkelsen, H. (2003a) Vaccine efficacy in spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor: relationship to molecular variation in A-layer protein of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 56, 31–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Lund, V. and Mikkelsen, H. (2004) Genetic diversity among A-proteins of atypical strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 61, 257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Lund, V., Arnesen, J.A., Mikkelsen, H., Gravningen, K., Brown, L. and Schrøder, M.B. (2008a) Atypical furunculosis vaccines for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua); vaccine efficacy and antibody responses, Vaccine 26, 6791–6799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Lund, V., Mikkelsen, H. and Schrøder, M.B. (2008b) Comparison of atypical furunculosis vaccines in spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor O.) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Vaccine 26, 2833–2840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Lutwyche, P., Exner, M.M., Hancock, R.E.W. and Trust, T.J. (1995) A conserved Aeromonas salmonicida porin provides protective immunity to rainbow trout. Infection and Immunity 63, 3137–3142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Lygren, B., Fausa Pettersen, E., Wergeland, H.I. and Endresen, C. (1998) An extracellular low molecular weight protease with activity against gelatin and casein produced earlier during growth of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida than the serine protease. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 18, 96–101.Google Scholar
  272. Mackie, T.J., Arkwright, J.A., Pryce-Tannatt, T.E., Motram, J.C. and Johnstone, W.R. (1930, 1933 and 1935) Interim, Second and Final Reports of the Furunculosis Committee. Edinburgh, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  273. Mackie, T.J. and Menzies, W.J.M. (1938) Investigations in Great Britain of furunculosis of the Salmonidae. Journal of Comparative Pathology and Therapeutics 51, 25.Google Scholar
  274. MacInnes, J.I., Trust, T.J. and Crosa, J.H. (1979) Deoxyribonucleic acid relationships among members of the genus Aeromonas. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 25, 579–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. Madetoja, J., Pylkkö, P., Pohjanvirta, T., Schildt, L. and Pelkonen, S. (2003a) Putative virulence factors of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), and European grayling, Thymallus thymallus (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases 26, 349–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Magnadóttir, B., Bambir, S.H., Gudmundsdóttir, B.K., Pilstrom, L. and Helgason, S. (2002) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in naturally and experimentally infected cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Diseases 25, 583–597.Google Scholar
  277. Maheshkumar, S., Goyal, S.M. and Economon, P.P. (1990) Concentration and detection of Aeromonas salmonicida from hatchery water. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 513–518.Google Scholar
  278. Markwardt, N.M., Gocha, Y.M. and Klontz, G.W. (1989) A new application for coomassie brilliant blue agar: detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in clinical samples. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 6, 231–233.Google Scholar
  279. Marsden, M.J., Vaughan, L.M., Foster, T.J. and Secombes, C.J. (1996a) A live (?aroA) Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine for furunculosis preferentially stimulates T-cell responses relative to B-cell responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Infection and Immunity 64, 3863–3869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. Marsden, M.J., Collins, E. and Secombes, C.J. (1996b) Factors influencing the clearance of a genetically attenuated (?aroA) strain of Aeromonas salmonicida from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 27, 89–94.Google Scholar
  281. Marsden, M.J., Freeman, L.C., Cox, D. and Secombes, C.J. (1996c) Non-specific immune responses in families of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, exhibiting differential resistance to furunculosis. Aquaculture 146, 1–16.Google Scholar
  282. Marsh, M.C. (1902) Bacterium truttae, a new bacterium pathogenic to trout. Science 16, 706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Martin-Carnahan, A. and Joseph, S.W. (2005) Genus I. Aeromonas Stanier 1943, 213AL. In: Brenner, D.J., Krieg, N.R. and Staley, J.T. (eds) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd edn, Vol. 2 The Proteobacteria, Part B The Gammaproteobacteria, New York, Springer, p. 557–578.Google Scholar
  284. Martinez-Murcia, A.J., Esteve, C., Garay, E. and Collins, M.D. (1992) Aeromonas allosaccharophila sp. nov., a new mesophilic member of the genus Aeromonas. FEMS Microbiology Letters 91, 199–206.Google Scholar
  285. Martinsen, B., Myhr, E., Reed, E. and Håstein, T. (1991) In vitro antimicrobial activity of sarafloxacin against clinical isolates of bacteria pathogenic to fish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 3, 235–241.Google Scholar
  286. Masada, C.L., LaPatra, S.E., Morton, A.W. and Strom, M.S. (2002) An Aeromonas salmonicida type IV pilin is required for virulence in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 51, 13–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. Mawdesley-Thomas, L.E. (1969) Furunculosis in the goldfish Carassius auratus (L.). Journal of Fish Biology 1, 19–23.Google Scholar
  288. McCarthy, D.H. (1975a) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida antigen in diseased fish tissue. Journal of General Microbiology 88, 185–187.Google Scholar
  289. McCarthy, D.H. (1975b) Fish furunculosis. Journal of the Institute of Fisheries Management 6, 13–18.Google Scholar
  290. McCarthy, D.H. (1976) Laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of fish-furunculosis and whirling disease. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods, Fisheries Research Technical Report no. 23, 5p.Google Scholar
  291. McCarthy, D.H. (1977a) The identification and significance of atypical strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 87, 459–463.Google Scholar
  292. McCarthy, D.H. (1977b) Some ecological aspects of the bacterial fish pathogen, Aeromonas salmonicida. Society of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Aquatic Microbiology 6, 299–324.Google Scholar
  293. McCarthy, D.H. (1978) A study of the taxonomic status of some bacteria currently assigned to the genus Aeromonas. Ph.D. thesis, Council of National Academic Awards, UK.Google Scholar
  294. McCarthy, D.H. (1980) Some ecological aspects of the bacterial fish pathogen - Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Aquatic Microbiology. Symposium of the Society of Applied Bacteriology No. 6, p.299–324.Google Scholar
  295. McCarthy, D.H., Stevenson, J.P. and Salsbury, A.W. (1974) Therapeutic efficacy of a potentiated sulphonamide in experimental furunculosis. Aquaculture 4, 407–410.Google Scholar
  296. McCarthy, D.H. and Rawle, C.T. (1975) Rapid serological diagnosis of fish furunculosis caused by smooth and rough strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 86, 185–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. McCarthy, D.H. and Roberts, R.J. (1980) Furunculosis of fish - the present state of our knowledge. In: Droop, M.A. and Jannasch, H.W. (eds.), Advances in Aquatic Microbiology. London, Academic Press, p.293–341.Google Scholar
  298. McCarthy, D.H., Amend, D.F., Johnson, K.A. and Bloom, J.V. (1983) Aeromonas salmonicida: determination of an antigen associated with protective immunity and evaluation of an experimental bacterin. Journal of Fish Diseases 6, 155–174.Google Scholar
  299. McCashion, R.N. and Lynch, W.H. (1987) Effects of polymyxin B nonapeptide on Aeromonas salmonicida. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 31, 1414–1419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. McCraw, B.M. (1952) Furunculosis of fish. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report 84, 87p.Google Scholar
  301. McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1988) Comparison of methods for the induction, propagation and recovery of L-phase variants of Aeromonas spp. Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research 6, 131–136.Google Scholar
  302. McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1990a). Recovery of cell wall deficient forms (L-forms) of the fish pathogens Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 13, 378–381.Google Scholar
  303. McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1991a) Atypical characteristics of the salmonid pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 137, 1341–1343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1991b) The role of cell wall deficient bacteria (L-forms; sphaeroplasts) in fish diseases. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 70, 1S–7S.Google Scholar
  305. McIntosh, D. and Austin, B. (1993) Potential use of vaccines based on cell-wall-defective or deficient (L-form) Aeromonas salmonicida for the control of furunculosis. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5254258.Google Scholar
  306. Mellergaard, S. and Larsen, J.L. (1981) Haemagglutination activity of Aeromonas salmonicida and Vibrio anguillarum strains isolated from diseased rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 1, 26–28.Google Scholar
  307. Merino, S., Aguilar, A., Rubires, X., Simon-Pujol, D., Congregado, F. and Tomás, J.M. (1996) The role of the capsular polysaccharide of Aeromonas salmonicida in the adherence and invasion of fish cell lines. FEMS Microbiology Letters 142, 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. Merino, S., Aguilar, A., Rubires, X., Abitiu, N., Regué, M. and Tomás, J.M. (1997a) The role of the capsular polysaccharide of Aeromonas hydrophila serogroup O:34 in the adherence to and invasion of fish cell lines. Research in Microbiology 148, 625–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Merino, S., Aguilar, A., Tomás, J.M., Bonet, R., Martinez, M.J., Simón-Pujol, D. and Congregado, F. (1997b) Complement resistance of capsulated strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Microbial Pathogenesis 22, 315–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. Michel, C. (1979) Furunculosis of salmonids: vaccination attempts in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) by formalin-killed germs. Annales de Recherche Vétérinaire 10, 33–40.Google Scholar
  311. Michel, C. (1980) A standardized model of experimental furunculosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37, 746–750.Google Scholar
  312. Michel, C. and Dubois-Darnaudpeys, A. (1980) Persistence of the virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida kept in river sediments. Annales de Recherche Vétérinaire 11, 375–386.Google Scholar
  313. Michel, C., Gerard, J.-P., Fourbet, B., Collas, R. and Chevalier, R. (1980) Emploi de la flumequine contre la furunculose des salmonides; essais therapeutiques et perspectives pratiques. Bulletin Français de Pisciculture 52, 154–162.Google Scholar
  314. Michel, C., Gonzalez, R., Bonjour, E. and Avrameas, S. (1990) A concurrent increasing of natural antibodies and enhancement of resistance to furunculosis in rainbow trout. Annales de Recherche Vétérinaire 21, 211–218.Google Scholar
  315. Midtlyng, P.J. (1996) A field study on intraperitoneal vaccination of Atlantic salmon (salmo salar L.) against furunculosis. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 6, 553–565.Google Scholar
  316. Midtlyng, P.J., Reitan, L.J., Lillehaug, A. and Ramstad, A. (1996) Protection, immune responses and side effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) vaccinated against furunculosis by different routes. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 6, 599–600.Google Scholar
  317. Mitoma, Y., Aoki, T. and Crosa, J.H. (1984) Phylogenetic relationships among Vibrio anguillarum plasmids. Plasmid 12, 143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. Miyata, M., Aoki, T., Inglis, V., Yoshida, T. and Endo, M. (1995) RAPD analysis of Aeromonas salmonicida and Aeromonas hydrophila. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 79, 181–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. Miyata, M., Inglis, V. and Aoki, T. (1996) Rapid identification of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida by the polymerase chain reaction. Aquaculture 141, 13–24.Google Scholar
  320. Moki, S.T., Nomura, T. and Yoshimizu, M. (1995) Effects of incubation temperature for isolation on auto-agglutination of Aeromonas salmonicida. Fish Pathology 30, 67–68.Google Scholar
  321. Mooney, J., Powell, E., Clabby, C. and Powell, R. (1995) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida n wild Atlantic salmon using a specific DNA probe test. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 21, 131–135.Google Scholar
  322. Morgan, J.A.W., Cranwell, P.A. and Pickup, R.W. (1991) Survival of Aeromonas salmonicida in Lake water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 57, 1777–1782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. Morgan, J.A.W., Rhodes, G. and Pickup, R.W. (1993) Survival of non culturable Aeromonas salmonicida in lake water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59, 874–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. Munn, C.B. and Trust, T.J. (1984) Role of additional protein layer in virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Acuigrup (ed.), Fish Diseases, Fourth COPRAQ-Session. Madrid, Editora ATP, p.69–73.Google Scholar
  325. Munn, C.B., Ishiguro, E.E., Kay, W.W. and Trust, T.J. (1982) Role of surface components in serum resistance of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida. Infection and Immunity 36, 1069–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Munro, A.L.S. (1984) A furunculosis vaccine - illusion or achievable objective. In: de Kinkelin, P.K. (ed.), Symposium on Fish Vaccination. Paris, Office International des Epizooties, p.97–120.Google Scholar
  327. Munro, A.L.S., Hastings, T.S., Ellis, A.E. and Liversidge, J. (1980) Studies on an ichthyotoxic material produced extracellularly by the furunculosis bacterium Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Ahne, W. (ed.), Fish Diseases - Third COPRAQ Session. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p.98–106.Google Scholar
  328. Mutoloki, S., Brudeseth, B., Reite, O.B. and Evensen, Ø. (2006) The contribution of Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products to the induction of inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) following vaccination with oil-based vaccines. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 20, 1–11.Google Scholar
  329. Najimi, M., Lemos, M.L. and Osorio, C.R. (2008) Identification of heme uptake genes in the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Archives of Microbiology 190, 439–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. Nakai, T., Miyakawa, M., Muroga, K. and Kamito, K. (1989a) The tissue distribution of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in artificially infected Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica. Fish Pathology 24, 23–28.Google Scholar
  331. Nakatsugawa, T. (1994) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from cultured shotted halibut. Fish Pathology 29, 193–198.Google Scholar
  332. Navot, N., Sinyakov, S. and Avtalion, R.R. (2011) Application of ultrasound in vaccination against goldfish ulcer disease: A pilot study. Vaccine 29, 1382–1389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Nese, L. and Enger, Ø. (1993) Isolation of Aeromonas salmonicida from salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and marine plankton. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 16, 79–81.Google Scholar
  334. Nielsen, B., Olsen, J.E. and Larsen, J.L. (1993) Plasmid profiling as an epidemiological marker within Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 15, 129–135.Google Scholar
  335. Nikl, L., Albright, L.J. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1991) Influence of seven immunostimulants on the immune response of coho salmon to Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12, 7–12.Google Scholar
  336. Nilsson, W.B. and Strom, M.S. (2002) Detection and identification of bacterial pathogens of fish in kidney tissue using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 48, 175–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. Nisr, R.B., Moody, A.J. and Gilpin, M.L. (2012) Screening microorganisms for insulin binding reveals binding by Burkholderia multivorans and Burkholderia cepacia and novel attachment of insulin to Aeromonas salmonicida via the A-layer. FEMS Microbiology Letters doi: 10.1111/j 1574–6968.2011. 02484xGoogle Scholar
  338. Nomura, S. and Saito, H. (1982) Production of the extracellular hemolytic toxin by an isolated strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 48, 1589–1597.Google Scholar
  339. Nomura, S., Fujino, M., Yamakawa, M. and Kawahara, E. (1988) Purification and characterization of salmolysin, an extracellular hemolytic toxin from Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 170, 3694–3702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. Noonan, B. and Trust, T.J. (1995) The leucine zipper of Aeromonas salmonicida AbcA is required for the transcriptional activation of the P2 promoter of the surface-layer structural gene, vapA, in Escherichia coli. Molecular Microbiology 17, 379–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. Nordmo, R., Varma, K.J., Sutherland, I.H. and Brokken, E.S. (1994) Florfenicol in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.: Field evaluation of efficacy against furunculosis in Norway. Journal of Fish Diseases 17, 239–244.Google Scholar
  342. Nordmo, R., Ramstad, A. and Holth Riseth, J.M. (1998) Induction of experimental furunculosis in heterogeneous test populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by use of a cohabitation method. Aquaculture 162, 11–21.Google Scholar
  343. Norqvist, A., Hagström, Å. and Wolf-Watz, H. (1989) Protection of rainbow trout against vibriosis and furunculosis by the use of attenuated strains of Vibrio salmonicida. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 1400–1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Novotny, A.J. (1978) Vibriosis and furunculosis in marine cultured salmon in Puget Sound. Washington Marine Fisheries Review 40, 52–55.Google Scholar
  345. Oakey, H.J., Ellis, J.T. and Gibson, L.F. (1998) The development of random DNA probes specific for Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84, 37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. O’Brien, D., Mooney, J., Ryan, D., Powell, E., Hiney, M., Smith, P.R. and Powell, R. (1994) Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida, causal agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish, from the tank effluent of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 3874–3877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. O’Hici, B., Olivier, G. and Powell, R. (2000) Genetic diversity of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida demonstrated by random amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analyses. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 39, 109–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. Ohtsuka, H., Nakai, T., Muroga, K. and Jo, Y. (1984) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from diseased eels. Fish Pathology 19, 101–107.Google Scholar
  349. O'Leary, W.M., Panos, C. and Helz, G.E. (1956) Studies on the nutrition of Bacterium salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 72, 673–676.Google Scholar
  350. Olivier, G. (1990) Virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida: lack of relationship with phenotypic characteristics. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 2, 119–127.Google Scholar
  351. Olivier, G., Evelyn, T.P.T. and Lallier, R. (1985a) Immunogenicity of vaccines from a virulent and an avirulent strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 43–55.Google Scholar
  352. Olivier, G., Evelyn, T.P.T. and Lallier, R. (1985b) Immunity to Aeromonas salmonicida in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) induced by modified Freunds complete adjuvant: its non-specific nature and the probable role of macrophages in the phenomenon. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 9, 419–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. Olivier, G., Eaton, C.A. and Campbell, N. (1986) Interaction between Aeromonas salmonicida and peritoneal macrophages of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12, 223–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. Olson, B.H. (1978) Enhanced accuracy of coliform testing in seawater by a modification of the Most Probable Number method. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 36, 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Ortega, C., Ruiz, I., De Blas, I., Muzquiz, J.L., Fernandez, A. and Alonso, J.L. (1996) Furunculosis control using a paraimmunization stimulant (Baypamun) in rainbow trout. Veterinary Research (Paris) 27, 561–568.Google Scholar
  356. Palmer, R. and Smith, P.R. (1980) Studies on vaccination of Atlantic salmon against furunculosis. In: Ahne, W. (ed.), Fish Diseases, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p.107–112.Google Scholar
  357. Parker, N.D. and Munn, C.B. (1985) Cell surface properties of virulent and attenuated strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. London, Academic Press, p.97–105.Google Scholar
  358. Paterson, W.D. (1974) Biochemical and serological differentiation of several pigment-producing aeromonads. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31, 1259–1261.Google Scholar
  359. Paterson, W.D. (1982) Furunculosis and other associated diseases caused by Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Anderson, D.P., Dorson, M. and Dubouget, P. (eds), Antigens of Fish Pathogens: Development and Production for Vaccines and Serodiagnostics. Lyon, Collection Foundation Marcel Merieux, p.119–137.Google Scholar
  360. Paterson, W.D. and Fryer, J.L. (1974a) Immune response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to Aeromonas salmonicida endotoxin. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31, 1743–1749.Google Scholar
  361. Paterson, W.D. and Fryer, J.L. (1974b) Immune response of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to Aeromonas salmonicida cells administered intraperitoneally in Freund's complete adjuvant. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31, 1751–1755.Google Scholar
  362. Paterson, W.D., Douey, D. and Desautels, D. (1980) Relationships between selected strains of typical and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Haemophilus piscium. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 26, 588–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Pavan, M.E., Abbott, S.L., Zorzópulus, J. and J.M. Janda (2000) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. pectinolyticus subsp. nov., a new pectinase-positive subspecies isolates from a heavily polluted river. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 50, 1119–1124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. Pedersen, K., Kofod, H., Dalsgaard, I. and Larsen, J.L. (1994) Isolation of oxidase-negative Aeromonas salmonicida from disease turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 149–154.Google Scholar
  365. Pedersen, K., Dalsgaard, I. and Larsen, J.L. (1996a) Characterization of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates by ribotyping and plasmid profiling. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 80, 37–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. Peréz, M.J., Rodríguez, L.A. and Nieto, T.P. (1998) The acetylcholinesterase ichthyotoxin is a common component of the extracellular products of Vibrionaceae strains. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84, 47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. Phipps, B.M., Trust, T.J., Ishiguro, E.E. and Kay, W.W. (1983) Purification and characterization of the cell surface virulent A protein from Aeromonas salmonicida. Biochemistry 22, 2934–2939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. Pickup, R.W., Rhodes, G., Cobban, R.J. and Clarke, K.J. (1996) The postponement of non-culturability in Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 19, 65–74.Google Scholar
  369. Plehn, M. (1911) Die Furunculose der Salmoniden. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Originale, Abeilung 1 60, 609–624.Google Scholar
  370. Popoff, M. (1969) Étude sur les Aeromonas salmonicida. I. Caractéres biochemiques et antigéniques. Recherches Vétérinaire 3, 49–57.Google Scholar
  371. Popoff, M. (1970) Bacterioses, generalities - Aeromonas et Aeromonose. Mimeograph, p. 38. Institut national de la Recherche Agronomique.Google Scholar
  372. Popoff, M. (1971a) Étude sur les Aeromonas salmonicida. II. Caracterisation des bactériophages actifs sur les 'Aeromonas salmonicida' et lysoypie. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaire 2, 33–45.Google Scholar
  373. Popoff, M. (1971b) Interest diagnostique d'un bactériophage specifique des Aeromonas salmonicida. Annales de Recherches Vétérinaire 2, 137–139.Google Scholar
  374. Popoff, M. (1984) Genus III. Aeromonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 398AL. In: Krieg, N.R. and Holt, J.G. (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, p. 545–548.Google Scholar
  375. Pylkkö, P., Pohjanvirta, T., Madetoja, J. and Pelkonen, S. (2005) Characterisation of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and European grayling Thymallus thymallus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 66, 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. Rabb, L., Cornick, J.W. and MacDermott, L.A. (1964) A macroscopic slide agglutination test for the presumptive diagnosis of furunculosis in fish. Progressive Fish Culturist 26, 118–120.Google Scholar
  377. Real, F., Acosta, B., Déniz, S., Oros, J. and Rodriguez, E. (1994) Aeromonas salmonicida infection in Sparus aurata in the Canaries. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 14, 153–155.Google Scholar
  378. Reith, M.E., Singh, R.K., Curtis, B., Boyd, J.M., Bouevitch, A., Kimball, J., Munholland, J., Murphy, C., Sarty, D., Williams, J., Nash, J.H., Johnson, S.C. and Brown, L.L. (2008) The genome of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida A449: insights into the evolution of a fish pathogen. BMC Genomics 9, 427. (doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-427).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. Roberts, S.D. (1980) A method of reducing the carrier state of Aeromonas salmonicida in juvenile Pacific salmon. M.S. thesis, University of Idaho, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  380. Robertson, P.A.W., Austin, D.A. and Austin, B. (2005) Prevention of ulcer disease in goldfish by means of vaccination. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 17, 203–209.Google Scholar
  381. Rockey, D.D., Fryer, J.L. and Rohovec, J.S. (1988) Separation and in vivo analysis of two extracellular proteases and the T-hemolysin from Aeromonas salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 5, 197–204.Google Scholar
  382. Rockey, D.D., Shook, L.A., Fryer, J.L. and Rohovec, J.S. (1989) Salmonid serum inhibits hemolytic activity of the secreted hemolysin of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 1, 263–268.Google Scholar
  383. Rockey, D.D., Dungan, C.F., Lundar, T. and Rohovec, J.S. (1991) Monoclonal antibodies against Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysacharide identify differences among strains. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 10, 115–120.Google Scholar
  384. Rodgers, C.J. (1990) Immersion vaccination for control of fish furunculosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 8, 69–72.Google Scholar
  385. Rodgers, C.J., Pringle, J.H., McCarthy, D.H. and Austin, B. (1981) Quantitative and qualitative studies of Aeromonas salmonicida bacteriophage. Journal of General Microbiology 125, 335–345.Google Scholar
  386. Rodgers, C.J. and Austin, B. (1985) Oral immunisation against furunculosis: an evaluation of two field trials. In: Manning, M.J. and Tatner, M.F. (eds), Fish Immunology. London, Academic Press, p.185–194.Google Scholar
  387. Rodriguez-Ramillo, S.T., Toro, M.A., Bouza, C., Hermida, M., Pardo, B.G., Cabaleiro, S., Martinez, P. and Fernandez, J. (2011) QTL detection for Aeromonas salmonicida resistance related traits in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). BMC Genomics 12, DOI:  101186/1471-2164-12-541
  388. Rørvik, K.-A., Dehli, A., Thomasen, M., Ruyter, B., Steien, S.H. and Salte, R. (2003) Synergistic effects of dietary iron and omega-3 fatty acid levels on survival of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., during natural outbreaks of furunculosis and cold water vibriosis. Journal of Fish Diseases 26, 477485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. Rose, A.S., Ellis, A.E. and Munro, A.L.S. (1989) The infectivity of different routes of exposure and shedding rates of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., held in sea water. Journal of Fish Diseases 12, 573–578.Google Scholar
  390. Rose, A.S., Ellis, A.E. and Munro, A.L.S. (1990a) Evidence against dormancy in the bacterial fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 68, 105–108.Google Scholar
  391. Rose, A.S., Ellis, A.E. and Munro, A.L.S. (1990b) The survival of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida in seawater. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 205–214.Google Scholar
  392. Ross, A.D. (1966) Endotoxin studies. In: Progress in Sport Fishery Research. Resource Publication 39, 77p.Google Scholar
  393. Sakai, D.K. (1977) Causative factors of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid furunculosis: extracellular protease. Scientific Reports of the Hokkaido Fish Hatchery 32, 61–89.Google Scholar
  394. Sakai, D.K. (1978) Colliquative activity of purified protease for muscular tissue in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Scientific Reports of the Hokkaido Fish Hatchery 33, 55–73.Google Scholar
  395. Sakai, D.K. (1984) The non-specific activation of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson complement by Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products and the correlation of complement activity with the inactivation of lethal toxicity products. Journal of Fish Diseases 7, 329–338.Google Scholar
  396. Sakai, D.K. (1985) Significance of extracellular protease for growth of a heterotrophic bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50, 1031–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. Sakai, D.K. (1986a) Kinetics of adhesion associated with net electrical charges in agglutinating Aeromonas salmonicida cells and their spheroplasts. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 52, 3136.Google Scholar
  398. Sakai, D.K. (1986b) Electrostatic mechanism of survival of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida strains in river water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51, 1343–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. Sakai, D.K. (1987) Adhesion of Aeromonas salmonicida strains associated with net electrostatic charges to host tissue cells. Infection and Immunity 55, 704–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. Sakai, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1986) A streptococcal disease of cultured Jacopever, Sebastes schlegeli. Suisanzoshuku (Aquiculture) 34, 171–177.Google Scholar
  401. Saleh, M., Soliman, H., Haenen, O. and El-Matbouli, M. (2011) Antibody-coated gold nanoparticles immunoassay for direct detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in fish tissues. Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 845–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. Samuelsen, O.B., Hjeltnes, B. and Glette, J. (1998) Efficacy of orally administered florfenicol in the treatment of furunculosis in Atlantic salmon. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 10, 56–61.Google Scholar
  403. Sandvick, O. and Hagan, O. (1968) Serological studies on proteinases produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and other aeromonads. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 9, 1–9.Google Scholar
  404. Santos, Y., García-Marquez, S., Pereira, P.G., Pazos, F., Riaza, A., Silva, R., El Morabit, A. and Ubeira, F.M. (2005) Efficacy of furunculosis vaccines in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.): evaluation of immersion, oral and injection delivery. Journal of Fish Diseases 28, 165–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. Scallan, A. and Smith, P.R. (1985) Control of asymptomatic carriers of Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon smolts with flumequine. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. New York, Academic Pres, p.119–127.Google Scholar
  406. Schubert, R.H.W. (1961) Über die biochemischen Merkmale von Aeromonas salmonicida. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten and Hygiene 1. Originale 183, 485–494.Google Scholar
  407. Schubert, R.H.W. (1967a) The taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Aeromonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936. Part 1. Suggestions on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the aerogenic Aeromonas species. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 17, 23–37.Google Scholar
  408. Schubert, R.H.W. (1967b) The taxonomy and nomenclature of the genus Aeromonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936. Part II. Suggestions on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the anaerogenic Aeromonas species. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 17, 237–279.Google Scholar
  409. Schubert, R.H.W. (1974) Genus II. Aeromonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936, 398. In: Buchanan, R.E. and Gibbons, N.E. (eds), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, p.345–348.Google Scholar
  410. Scott, M. (1968) The pathogenicity of Aeromonas salmoncida (Griffin) in sea and brackish water. Journal of General Microbiology 50, 864–868.Google Scholar
  411. Sheeran, B. and Smith, P.R. (1981) A second extracellular proteolytic activity associated with the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 11, 73–76.Google Scholar
  412. Sheeran, B., Drinan, E. and Smith, P.R. (1984) Preliminary studies on the role of extracellular proteolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis of furunculosis. In: Acuigrup (ed.), Fish Diseases, Fourth COPRAQ-Session. Madrid, Editora ATP, p.89–100.Google Scholar
  413. Shieh, H.S. (1985) Vaccination of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., against furunculosis with protease from an avirulent strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Biology 27, 97–101.Google Scholar
  414. Shieh, H.S. and MacLean, J.R. (1975) Purification and properties of an extra-cellular protease of Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis. International Journal of Biochemistry 6, 653–656.Google Scholar
  415. Shotts, Jr., E.B., Talkington, F.D., Elliott, D.G. and McCarthy, D.H. (1980) Aetiology of an ulcerative disease in goldfish, Carassius auratus (L.): characterization of the causative agent. Journal of Fish Diseases 3, 181–186.Google Scholar
  416. Siegel, D.C. and Congleton, J.L. (1997) Bactericidal activity of juvenile chinook salmon macrophages against Aeromonas salmonicida after exposure to live or heat killed Renibacterium salmoninarum or to soluble proteins produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 180–189.Google Scholar
  417. Singleton, F.L., Attwell, R.W., Jangi, M.S. and Colwell, R.R. (1982a) Influence of salinity and organic nutrient concentration on survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic microcosms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 43, 1080–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. Singleton, F.L., Attwell, R., Jangi, S. and Colwell, R.R. (1982b) Effects of temperature and salinity on Vibrio cholerae growth. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 44, 1047–1058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. Siwicki, A.K., Klein, P., Morand, M., Kiczka, W. and Studnicka, M. (1998) Immunostimulatory effects of dimerized lysozyme (KLP-602) on the nonspecific defense mechanisms and protection against furunculosis in salmonids). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 61, 369–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. Skerman, V.B.D., McGowan, V. and Sneath, P.H.A. (1980) Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 30, 225–420.Google Scholar
  421. Smith (1939) Cited by McFaddin, T.W. (1969)Google Scholar
  422. Smith, I.W. (1962) Furunculosis in kelts. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland. Freshwater and Salmon Fisheries Research 27, 1–5.Google Scholar
  423. Smith, I.W. (1963) The classification of Bacterium salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 33, 263–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. Smith, P.D., McCarthy, D.H. and Paterson, W.D. (1980) Further studies on furunculosis vaccination. In: Ahne, W. (ed.), Fish Diseases, Third COPRAQ-Session. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p.113–119.Google Scholar
  425. Smith, P.R. (1991) Stress test picks up furunculosis carriers. Fish Farmer 14, 42.Google Scholar
  426. Smith, P.R., Brazil, G.M., Drinan, E.M., O'Kelly, J., Palmer, R. and Scallan, A. (1982) Lateral transmission of furunculosis in sea water. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 3, 41–42.Google Scholar
  427. Snieszko, S.F. (1957) Genus IV. Aeromonas Kluyver and van Niel 1936. In: Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Smith, N.R. (eds), Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 7th edn. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, p.189–193.Google Scholar
  428. Snieszko, S.F. (1958a) Fish furunculosis. Fishery Leaflet 467 . United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. 4p.Google Scholar
  429. Snieszko, S.F. and Friddle, S.B. (1949) Prophylaxis of furunculosis in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by oral immunization and sulphamerazine. Progressive Fish Culturist 1, 161–168.Google Scholar
  430. Snieszko, S.F., Griffin, P. and Friddle, S.B. (1950) A new bacterium (Haemophilus piscium n. sp.) from ulcer disease of trout. Journal of Bacteriology 59, 699–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. Snieszko, S.F. and Bullock, G.L. (1957) Treatment of sulfonamide-resistant furunculosis in trout and determination of drug sensitivity. Fishery Bulletin 125 . United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. p.555–564.Google Scholar
  432. Snieszko, S.F., Dunbar, C.E. and Bullock, G.L. (1959) Resistance to ulcer disease and furunculosis in eastern brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Progressive Fish Culturist 21, 111–116.Google Scholar
  433. Sørum, H., Kvello, J.H. and Håstein, T. (1993b) Occurrence and stability of plasmids in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolated from salmonids with furunculosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 16, 199–206.Google Scholar
  434. Sørum, H., Holstad, G., Lunder, T. and Håstein, T. (2000) Grouping by plasmid profiles of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from fish, with special reference to salmonid fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 41, 159–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. Sövényi, J.F., Yamamoto, H., Fujimoto, S. and Kusuda, R. (1990) Lymphomyeloid cells, susceptibility to erythrodermatitis of carp and bacterial antigens. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 14, 185–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. Spence, K.D., Fryer, J.L. and Pilcher, K.S. (1965) Active and passive immunization of certain salmonid fishes against Aeromonas salmonicida. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 11, 397–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. Stamm, J.M., Hanson, C.W., Chu, D.T.W., Bailer, R., Vojtko, C. and Fernandes, P.B. (1986) In vitro evaluation of A-56619 (Difloxacin) and A-56620: new aryl-fluoroquinolones. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 29, 193–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. Stanley, C., Hiney, M., Gilroy, D., Powell, R., Padley, D. and Smith, P. (2002) Furunculosis-inducing ability of microcosms seeded with Aeromonas salmonicida correlates with colony-forming ability but not with PCR and ELISA data. Aquaculture 210, 35–48.Google Scholar
  439. Stensvåg, K., Arnesen, S.M., Bøgwald, J. and Jørgensen, T.Ø. (1999) Localization of purified surface molecules (lipopolysaccharide and A-protein) from Aeromonas salmonicida in the kidney and spleen from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 22, 337–349.Google Scholar
  440. Stevenson, L.H. (1978) A case for bacterial dormancy in aquatic systems. Microbial Ecology 4, 127–133.Google Scholar
  441. Stoffregen, D.A., Chako, A.J., Backman, S. and Babish, J.G. (1993) Successful therapy of furunculosis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., using the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent enrofloxacin. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 219–228.Google Scholar
  442. Stuber, K., Burr, S.E., Braun, M., Wahli, T. and Frey, J. (2003) Type III secretion genes in Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida are located on a large thermolabile virulence plasmid. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41, 3854–3856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. Sussman, A.S. and Halvorson, H.O. (1966) Spores, their Dormancy and Germination. New York, Harper and Row, 356p.Google Scholar
  444. Svendsen, Y.S., Dalmo, R.A. and Bøgwald, J. (1999) Tissue localization of Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., following experimental challenge. Journal of Fish Diseases 22, 125–131.Google Scholar
  445. Tajima, K., Takahashi, T., Ezura, Y. and Kimura, T. (1984) Enzymatic properties of the purified extracellular protease of Aeromonas salmonicida, Ar-4 (EFDL). Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 50, 145–150.Google Scholar
  446. Tajima, K., Ezura, Y. and Kimura, T. (1987b) Pathogenicity of a non-protease secreting strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University 38, 139–150.Google Scholar
  447. Tapia-Cammas, D., Yañez, A., Arancibia, G., Toranzo, A.E. and Avendaño-Herrera, R. (2011) Multiplex PCR for the detection of Piscirickettsia salmonis, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida and Streptococcus phocae in Chilean marine farms. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 97, 135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. Tatner, M.F. (1987) The quantitative relationship between vaccine dilution, length of immersion time and antigen uptake, using a radiolabelled Aeromonas salmonicida bath in direct immersion experiments with rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture 62, 173–185.Google Scholar
  449. Tatner, M.F. (1989) The antibody response of intact and short term thymectomised rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to Aeromonas salmonicida. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 13, 387.Google Scholar
  450. Tatner, M.F., Johnson, C.M. and Horne, M.T. (1984) The tissue localization of Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, following three methods of administration. Journal of Fish Biology 25, 95–108.Google Scholar
  451. Taylor, P.W. and Winton, J.R. (2002) Optimization of nested polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Aeromonas salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri, and Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 14, 216–224.Google Scholar
  452. Thornton, J.C., Garduño, R.A., Newman, S.G. and Kay, W.W. (1991) Surface-disorganized, attenuated mutants of Aeromonas salmonicida as furunculosis live vaccines. Microbial Pathogenesis 11, 85–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. Thornton, J.C., Garduño, R.A., Carlos, S.J. and Kay, W.W. (1993) Novel antigens expressed by Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo. Infection and Immunity 61, 4582–4589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. Thornton, J.C., Garduño, R.A. and Kay, W.W. (1994) The development of live vaccines for furunculosis lacking the A-layer and O-antigen of Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Fish Diseases 17, 195–204.Google Scholar
  455. Thornton, J.M., Austin, D.A., Austin, B. and Powel, R. (1999) Small subunit rRNA gene sequences of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia and Haemophilus piscium reveal pronounced similarities with A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 35, 155–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. Titball, R.W. and Munn, C.B. (1981) Evidence for two haemolytic activities from Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 12, 27–30.Google Scholar
  457. Titball, R.W. and Munn, C.B. (1983) Partial purification and properties of a haemolytic activity (T-lysin) from Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 20, 207–210.Google Scholar
  458. Titball, R.W. and Munn, C.B. (1985a) The purification and some properties of H-lysin from Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of General Microbiology 131, 1603–1609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. Titball, R.W. and Munn, C.B. (1985b) Interactions of extracellular products from Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. London, Academic press, p.61–68.Google Scholar
  460. Todd, C. (1933) The presence of a bacteriophage for B. salmonicida in river waters. Nature (London) 131, 360.Google Scholar
  461. Toranzo, A.E., Barja, J.L., Colwell, R.R. and Hetrick, F.M. (1983a) Characterization of plasmids in bacterial fish pathogens. Infection and Immunity 39, 184–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. Toranzo, A.E., Barja, J.L., Potter, S.A., Colwell, R.R., Hetrick, F.M. and Crosa, J.H. (1983b) Molecular factors associated with virulence of marine vibrios isolated from striped bass in Chesapeake Bay. Infection and Immunity 39, 1220–1227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. Treasurer, J. and Cox, D. (1991) The occurrence of Aeromonas salmonicida in wrasse (Labridae) and implications for Atlantic salmon farming. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 11, 208–210.Google Scholar
  464. Trust, T.J., Ishiguro, E.E. and Atkinson, H.M. (1980a) Relationship between Haemophilus piscium and Aeromonas salmonicida revealed by Aeromonas hydrophila bacteriophage. FEMS Microbiology Letters 9, 199–201.Google Scholar
  465. Trust, T.J., Howard, P.S., Chamberlain, J.B., Ishiguro, E.E. and Buckley, J.T. (1980c) Additional surface protein in autoaggregating strains of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Microbiology Letters 9, 35–38.Google Scholar
  466. Trust, T.J., Kay, W.W. and Ishiguro, E.E. (1983) Cell surface hydrophobicity and macrophage association of Aeromonas salmonicida. Current Microbiology 9, 315–318.Google Scholar
  467. Tsoumas, A., Alderman, D.J. and Rodgers, C.J. (1989) Aeromonas salmonicida: development of resistance to 4-quinolone antimicrobials. Journal of Fish Diseases 12, 493–507.Google Scholar
  468. Udey, L.R. (1977) Pathogenic, antigenic and immunogenic properties of Aeromonas salmonicida studied in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  469. Udey, L.R. (1982) A differential medium for distinguishing A/r+ from A/r- phenotypes in Aeromonas salmonicida. In: Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference and Workshop and 7th Eastern Fish Health Workshop. Baltimore, International Association for Aquatic Animal Medicine, p.41.Google Scholar
  470. Udey, L.R. and Fryer, J.L. (1978) Immunization of fish with bacterins of Aeromonas salmonicida. Marine Fisheries Review 40, 12–17.Google Scholar
  471. Umelo, E. and Trust, T.J. (1997) Identification and molecular characterization of two tandomly located flagellin genes from Aeromonas salmonicida A449. Journal of Bacteriology 179, 5292–5299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. Umelo, E. and Trust, T.J. (1998) Physical map of the chromosome of Aeromonas salmonicida and genomic comparisons between Aeromonas strains. Microbiology 144, 2141–2149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. Van Alstine, J.M., Trust, T.J. and Brooks, D.E. (1986) Differential partition of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida and attenuated derivatives possessing specific cell surface alterations in polymer aqueous-phase systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 51, 1309–1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. Vaughan, L.M., Smith, P.R. and Foster, T.J. (1993) An aromatic-dependent mutant of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida is attenuated in fish and is effective as a live vaccine against the salmonid disease furunculosis. Infection and Immunity 61, 2172–2181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. Vipond, R., Bricknell, I.R., Durant, E., Bowden, T.J., Ellis, A.E., Smith, M. and MacIntyre, S. (1998) Defined deletion mutants demonstrate that the major secreted toxins are not essential for the virulence of Aeromonas salmonicida. Infection and Immunity 66, 1990–1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. Vivas, J., Riaño, J., Carracedo, B., Razquin, B.E., López-Fierro, P., Naharro, G. and Villena, A.J. (2004a) The auxotrophic aroA mutant of Aeromonas hydrophila as a live attenuated vaccine against A. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 16, 193–206.Google Scholar
  477. Wada, S., Ozeki, K., Kurata, O., Hatai, K., Ishida, A. and Ui, K. (2010) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida infection in sailfin sandfish Arctoscopus japonicus. Fish Pathology 45, 92–95.Google Scholar
  478. Ward, P.D., Waters, C.A. and Sweeney, K.J. (1985) Autoagglutination of virulent Aeromonas salmonicida strains lacking additional surface layer. In: Ellis, A.E. (ed.), Fish and Shellfish Pathology. London, Academic Press, p.107–117.Google Scholar
  479. Weber, J.M. and Zwicker, B.M. (1979) Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): occurrence of specific agglutinins to three bacterial pathogens. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36, 1102–1107.Google Scholar
  480. Weeks-Perkins, B.A. and Ellis, A.E. (1995) Chemotactic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) macrophages to virulent and attenuated strains of Aeromonas salmonicida. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 5, 313–323.Google Scholar
  481. Wiklund, T. (1995) Survival of ‘atypical’ Aeromonas salmonicida in water and sediment microcosms of different salinities and temperatures. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 21, 137–143.Google Scholar
  482. Wiklund, T., Sazonov, A., L'Iniova, G.P., Pugaewwa, V.P., Zoobaha, S.V. and Bylund, G. (1992) Characteristics of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida isolated from wild Pacific salmonids in Kamchatka, Russia. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 12, 76–79.Google Scholar
  483. Wiklund, T. and Bylund, G. (1993) Skin ulcer disease of flounder Platichthys flesus in the northern Baltic Sea. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 17, 165–174.Google Scholar
  484. Wiklund, T., Lönnström, L. and Niiranen, H. (1993) Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida lacking pigment production, isolated from farmed salmonids in Finland. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 15, 219–223.Google Scholar
  485. Wiklund, T., Dalsgaard, I., Eerola, E. and Olivier, G. (1994) Characteristics of ‘atypical’ cytochrome-oxidase negative Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from ulcerated flounder (Platichthys flesus (L.). Journal of Applied Bacteriology 76, 511–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  486. Wiklund, T. and Dalsgaard, I. (1995) Atypical Aeromonas salmonicida associated with ulcerated flatfish species in the Baltic sea and the North Sea. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 7, 218–224.Google Scholar
  487. Wiklund, T. and Dalsgaard, I. (1998) Occurrence and significance of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in non-salmonid and salmonid fish hosts. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 32, 49–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  488. Williams, P.J., Courtenay, S.C. and Vardy, C. (1997) Use of enrofloxacin to control atypical Aeromonas salmonicida in Atlantic tom cod. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 216–222.Google Scholar
  489. Williamson, I.J.F. (1928) Furunculosis of the salmonidae. Fisheries Board of Scotland, Salmon Fisheries 5, 1–17.Google Scholar
  490. Williamson, I.J.F. (1929) A study of bacterial infection in fish and certain lower invertebrates. Fisheries Board of Scotland, Salmon Fisheries 11, 3.Google Scholar
  491. Wolf, L.E. (1954) Development of disease resistant strains of fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 83, 342–349.Google Scholar
  492. Wolke, R.E. (1975) Pathology of bacterial and fungal diseases affecting fish. In: Ribelin, W.E. and Migaki, G. (eds), The Pathology of Fishes. Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press, p.76–78.Google Scholar
  493. Wong, K.R., Green, M.J. and Buckley, J.T. (1989) Extracellular secretion of cloned aerolysin and phospholipase by Aeromonas salmonicida. Journal of Bacteriology 171, 2523–2527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  494. Wood, S.C., McCashion, R.N. and Lynch, W.H. (1986) Multiple low-level antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas salmonicida. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 29, 992–996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. Wooster, G.A and Bowser, P.R. (1996) The aerobiological pathway of a fish pathogen: survival and dissemination of Aeromonas salmonicida in aerosols and its implications in fish health management. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27, 7–14.Google Scholar
  496. Xu, H.-S., Roberts, N., Singleton, F.L., Attwell, R.W., Grimes, D.J. and Colwell, R.R. (1982) Survival and viability of non-culturable Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae in the estuarine and marine environment. Microbial Ecology 8, 313–323.Google Scholar
  497. Yamada, Y,, Kaku, Y. and Wakabayashi, H. (2000) Phylogenetic intrarelationships of atypical Aeromonas salmonicida isolated in Japan as determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. Fish Pathology 35, 35–40.Google Scholar
  498. Zimmermann, O.E.R. (1890) Die Bakterien unserer Trink- und Nutzwässer insbesondere der Wassers der Chemnitzer Wasseleitung. 1. Reihe. Elfter Bericht der Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Chemnitz 1, 38–39.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Austin
    • 1
  • Dawn A. Austin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AquacultureUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations