Advertisement

Aerobic Gram-Positive Rods and Cocci

  • Brian Austin
  • Dawn A. Austin
Chapter

Abstract

Aerobic heterotrophic Gram-positive rods and cocci have received great attention from fisheries microbiologists, largely because of the severity of the diseases caused by pathogenic representatives.

Keywords

Rainbow Trout Atlantic Salmon Striped Bass Chinook Salmon Brook Trout 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ajmal, M. and Hobbs, B.C. (1967) Species of Corynebacterium and Pasteurella isolated from diseased salmon, trout and rudd. Nature (London) 215, 142–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alcorn, S., Murray, A.L., Pascho, R.J. and Varney, J. (2005). A cohabitation challenge to compare the efficacies of vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in Chinook salmon Onchorhynchus tshawytscha. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63, 151–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, L.N. (1958) Multiple sulfa therapy of kidney disease among brook trout. Progressive Fish Culturist 20, 66–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amend, D.F. and Pietsch, J.P. (1972) Virucidal activity of two iodophors to salmonid viruses. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29, 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antychowicz, J., Lipiec, M. and Matusiewicz, J. (2003) Infection of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in an intensive culture facility Mycobacterium marinum. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 23, 60–66.Google Scholar
  6. Arakawa, C.K. and Fryer, J.L. (1984) Isolation and characterization of a new subspecies of Mycobacterium chelonei infections for salmonid fish. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 37, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arakawa, C.K., Sanders, J.E. and Fryer, J.L. (1987) Production of monoclonal antibodies against Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of Fish Diseases 10, 249–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arakawa, C.K. and Fryer, J.L. (1984) Isolation and characterization of a new subspecies of Mycobacterium chelonei infections for salmonid fish. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 37, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armstrong, R.D., Martin, S.W., Evelyn, T.P.T., Hicks, B., Dorward, W.J. and Ferguson, H.W. (1989) A field evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody-based broodstock screening test used to evaluate the vertical transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 53, 385–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Aronson, J.D. (1926) Spontaneous tuberculosis in salt water fish. Journal of Infectious Diseases 39, 315–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Austin, B. (1985) Evaluation of antimicrobial compounds for the control of bacterial kidney disease in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Austin, B. (1986) Ecology of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonids. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology, Ljublana 650654.Google Scholar
  13. Austin, B. and Rodgers, C.J. (1980) Diversity among strains causing bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. Current Microbiology 3, 231–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Austin, B., Embley, T.M. and Goodfellow, M. (1983a) Selective isolation of Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 17, 111–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Austin, B. and Rayment, J. (1985) Epizootiology of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 505–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Austin, B., Bucke, D., Feist, S. and Rayment, J. (1985) A false positive reaction in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for Renibacterium salmoninarum with a 'coryneform' organism. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 5, 8–9.Google Scholar
  17. Austin, B., McIntosh, D. and Murray, K.R. (1988) Infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with Planococcus. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 8, 21–22.Google Scholar
  18. Austin, B. and Stobie, M. (1992a) Recovery of Micrococcus luteus and presumptive Planococcus from moribund fish during outbreaks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) fry syndrome (RTFS) in England. Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 203–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Avendaño-Herrera, R., Balboa, S., Doce, A., Ilardi, P, Lovera, P., Toranzo, A.E. and Romalde, J.L. (2011) Pseudo-membranes on internal organs associated with Rhodococcus qingshengii infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Veterinary Microbiology 147, 200–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Backman, S., Ferguson, H.W., Prescott, J.F. and Wilcock, B.P. (1990) Progressive panophthalmitis in chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum): a case report. Journal of Fish Diseases 13, 345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Baird-Parker, A.C. (1963) A classification of micrococci and staphylococci based on physiological and biochemical tests. Journal of General Microbiology 30, 409–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Baird-Parker, A.C. (1965) The classification of staphylococci and micrococci from worldwide sources. Journal of General Microbiology 39, 363–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Baldacci, E., Farina, G. and Locci, R. (1966) Emendation of the genus Streptoverticillium Baldacci (1958) and revision of some species. Gionale Microbiologica 14, 153–171.Google Scholar
  24. Balfry, S.K., Albright, L.J. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1996) Horizontal transfer of Renibacterium salmoninarum among farmed salmonids via the faecal-oral route. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 25, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bandín, I., Santos, Y., Barja, J.L. and Toranzo, A.E. (1989) Influence of the growth conditions on the hydrophobicity of Renibacterium salmoninarum evaluated by different methods. FEMS Microbiology Letters 60, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bandín, I., Santos, Y., Bruno, D.W., Raynard, R.S., Toranzo, A.E. and Barja, J.L. (1991a) Lack of biological activities in the extracellular products of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48, 421–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bandín, I., Santos, Y., Toranzo, A.E. and Barja, J.L. (1991b) MICs and MBCs of chemotherapeutic agents against Renibacterium salmoninarum. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 35, 1011–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bandín, I., Santos, Y., Magariños, B., Barja, J.L. and Toranzo, A.E. (1992) The detection of two antigenic groups among Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates. FEMS Microbiology Letters 94, 105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bandín, I., Santos, Y., Barja, J.L. and Toranzo, A.E. (1993) Detection of a common antigen among Renibacterium salmoninarum, Corynebacterium aquaticum and Carnobacterium piscicola by the Western Blot Technique. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5, 172–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bandín, I., Heinen, P., Brown, L.L. and Toranzo, A.E. (1996) Comparison of different ELISA kits for detecting Renibacterium salmoninarum. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 16, 19–22.Google Scholar
  31. Banner, C.R., Long, J.J., Fryer, J.L. and Rohovec, J.S. (1986) Occurrence of salmonid fish infected with Renibacterium salmoninarum in the Pacific Ocean. Journal of Fish Diseases 9, 273–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Banner, C.R., Rohovec, J.S. and Fryer, J.L. (1991) A new value for mol percent guanine + cytosine of DNA for the salmonid pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 79, 57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bartos, J.M. and Sommer, C.V. (1981) In vitro cell mediated immune response to M. tuberculosis and M. salmoniphilum in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Developmental and Comparative Immunology 5, 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bataillon, E., Dubard and Terre, L. (1897) Un nouveau type de tuberculose. Comptes rendus des Sceances de la Societe Biologie 49, 446–449.Google Scholar
  35. Baudin-Laurençin, F., Vigneulle, M. and Mevel, M. (1977) Premieres observations sur la Corynebacterioses des salmonides en Bretegne. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 87, 505–507.Google Scholar
  36. Baya, A.M., I, T., Lupiani, B. and Hetrick, F. (1992a) Bacillus cereus, a pathogen for striped bass. Eastern Fish Health and American Fisheries Society Fish Health Section Workshop, 16–19 June 1992, Auburn University, Auburn, p. 67.Google Scholar
  37. Baya, A.M., Lupiani, B., Bandín, I., Hetrick, F.M., Figueras, A., Carnahan, A., May, E.M. and Toranzo, A.E. (1992b) Phenotypic and pathobiological properties of Corynebacterium aquaticum isolated from diseased striped bass. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 14, 115–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Belding, D.L. and Merrill, B. (1935) A preliminary report upon a hatchery disease of the Salmonidae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 65, 76–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bell, G.R. (1961) Two epidemics of apparent kidney disease in cultured pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 18, 559–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Bell, G.R., Higgs, D.A. and Traxler, G.S. (1984) The effect of dietary ascorbate, zinc, and manganese on the development of experimentally induced bacterial kidney disease in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Aquaculture 36, 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Benediktsdóttir, E., Helgason, S. and Gudmundsdóttir, S. (1991) Incubation time for the cultivation of Renibacterium salmoninarum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., broodfish. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Beran, V., Matlova, L., Dvorska, Svastova, P. and Pavlik, I. (2006) Distribution of mycobacteria in clinically healthy ornamental fish and their aquatic environment. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 383–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Bransden, M.P., Carson, J., Munday, B.L., Handlinger, J.H., Carter, C.G. and Nowak, B.F. (2000) Nocardiosis in tank-reared Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 83–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brown, L.L., Albright, L.J. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1990) Control of vertical transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum by injection of antibiotics into maturing female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9, 127–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brown, L.L., Iwana, G.K., Evelyn, T.P.T., Nelson, W.S. and Levine, R.P. (1994) Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect DNA from Renibacterium salmoninarum within individual salmonid eggs. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Brown, L.L., Evelyn, T.P.T., Iwama, G.K., Nelson, W.S. and Levine, R.P. (1995) Bacterial species other than Renibacterium salmoninarum cross react with antisera against Renibacterium salmoninarum but are negative for the p57 gene of Renibacterium salmoninarum as detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 21, 227–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Brown, L.L., Iwama, G.K. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1996) The effect of early exposure of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) eggs to the p57 protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum on the development of immunity to the pathogen. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 6, 149–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Bruno, D.W. (1987) Serum agglutinating titres against Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Biology 30, 327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Bruno, D.W. (1988) The relationship between auto-agglutination, cell surface hydrophobicity and virulence of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 51, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Bruno, D.W., Griffiths, J., Mitchell, C.G., Wood, B.P., Fletcher, Z.J., Drobniewski, F.A. and Hastings, T.S. (1998) Pathology attributed to Mycobacterium chelonae infection among farmed and laboratory-infected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 33, 101–109,PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Bruno, D.W. and Brown, L.L. (1999) The occurrence of Renibacterium salmoninarum within vaccine adhesion components from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum. Aquaculture 170, 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Bruno, D.W., Collet, B., Turnbull, A., Kilburn, R., Walker, A., Pendry, D., McIntosh, A., Urquhart, K. and Taylor, G. (2007) Evaluation and development of diagnostic methods for Renibacterium salmoninarum causing bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in the UK. Aquaculture 269, 114–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Bucke, D. (1978) Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of fish. Fisheries Notice. Lowestoft, M.A.F.F., 60, 1–4.Google Scholar
  54. Bullock, G.L., Stuckey, H.M. and Chen, P.K. (1974) Corynebacterial kidney disease of salmonids: growth and serological studies on the causative bacterium. Applied Microbiology 28, 811–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Bullock, G.L. and Stuckey, H.M. (1975b) Fluorescent antibody identification and detection of the Corynebacterium causing kidney disease of salmonids. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32, 2224–2227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Bullock, G.L., Stuckey, H.M. and Wolf, K. (1975) Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fish Diseases Leaflet 41. Washington D.C., United States Department of the Interior.Google Scholar
  57. Bullock, G.L., Stuckey, H.M. and Mulcahy, D. (1978b) Corynebacterial kidney disease: egg transmission following iodophore disinfection. Fish Health News 76, 51–52.Google Scholar
  58. Bullock, G. L., Griffin, B.R. and Stuckey, H.M. (1980). Detection of Corynebacterium salmoninus by direct fluorescent antibody test. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37, 719–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Campbell, G. and MacKelvie, R.M. (1968) Infection of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by nocardiae. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25, 423–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Campos-Pérez, J.J., Ellis, A.E. and Secombes, C.J. (1997) Investigation of factors influencing the ability of Renibacterium salmoninarum to stimulate rainbow trout macrophage respiratory burst activity. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 7, 555–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Chambers, E. and Barker, G. (2006) Comparison of culture media for the isolation of Renibacterium salmoninarum from naturally infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 26, 137–142.Google Scholar
  62. Chambers, E., Gardiner, R. and Peeler, E.J. (2008) An investigation into the prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and wild fish populations in selected river catchments in England and Wales between 1998 and 2000. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 89–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Chambers, E.M., Nagel, D.A., Elloway, E.A., Addison, K.L., Barker, G.A., Verner-Jeffreys, D.W. and Stone, D.M. (2009) Polymerase chain reaction detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in fish: Validation of a modified protocol. Aquaculture 287, 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Chang, T.-C., Hsieh, C.-Y., Chang, C.-D., Shen, Y.-L., Huang, K.-C., Tu, C., Chen, L.-C., Wu, Z.-B. and Tsai, S.-S. (2006) Pathological and molecular studies on mycobacteriosis of milkfish Chanos chanos in Taiwan. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72, 147–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Chen, M.F., Yun, S., Marty, G.D., McDowell, T.S., House, M.L., Appersen, J.A., Guenther, T.A., Arkush, K.D. and Hedrick, R.P. (2000) A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortalities of white seabass Atraroscion nobilis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 43, 117–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Chen, P.K., Bullock, G.L., Stuckey, H.M. and Bullock, A.C. (1974) Serological diagnosis of corynebacterial kidney disease of salmonids. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 31, 1939–1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Chen, S.-C. (1992) Study on the pathogenicity of Nocardia asteroides to the Formosa snakehead (Channa maculata (Lacepède). Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Chen, S.-C., Adams, A. and Richards, R.H. (1997) Extracellular products from Mycobacterium spp. in fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 20, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Chen, S.-C., Lee, J.-L., Lai, C.-C., Gu, Y .-W., Wang, C.-T., Chang, H.-Y. and Tsai, K.-H. (2000) Nocardiosis in sea bass, Lateolabrax japonicus in Taiwan. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Chen, S.-C., Wang, P.-C., Tung, M.-C., Thompson, K.D. and Adams, A. (2000a) A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like organism in grouper, Epinephelus melanostigma, in Taiwan. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 415–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Chen, S.-C., Thompson, K.D., Adams, A. And Richards, R.H. (2001) The production of a lymphokine (macrophage activating factor) by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), leucocytes stimulated with the extracellular products of Mycobacterium sp. Journal of Fish Diseases 24, 217–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Claveau, R. (1991) Néphrite granulomateuse à Rhodococcus spp dans un élevage de saumons de l'Atlantique (Salmo salar). Le Médecin Vétérinaire du Québec 21, 160–161.Google Scholar
  73. Coady, A.M., Murray, A.L., Elliott, D.G. and Rhodes, L.D. (2006) Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 2672–2678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Conroy, D.A. (1964) Notes on the incidence of piscine tuberculosis in Argentina. Progressive Fish Culturist 26, 89–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Conroy, D.A. (1966) Observaciones sobre casos Espontáneous de tuberculosis ictica. Microbiología española 19, 93–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Conroy, D.A. and Valdez, I.E. (1962) Un casos de tuberculosis on peces tropicales. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología 5, 9–16.Google Scholar
  77. Cook, M. and Lynch, W.H. (1999) Sensitive nested reverse transcriptase PCR assay to detect viable cells of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 3042–3047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Cornwell, E.R., Cinelli, M.J., McIntosh, D.M., Blank, G.S., Wooster, G.A., Groocock, G.H., Getchell, R.G. and Bowser, P.R. (2011) Epizootic Nocardia infection in cultured weakfish, Cynoscion regalis (Bloch and Schneider). Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 567–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Cui, Z., Samuel-Shaker, D., Watral, V. and Kent, M.L. (2010) Attenuated Mycobacterium marinum protects zebrafish against mycobacteriosis. Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 371–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Cvitanich, J.D. (1994) Improvements in the direct fluorescent antibody technique for the detection, identification, and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid kidney smears. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Cvitanich, J.D. (2004) Renibacterium salmoninarum bar forms: characterization, occurrence, and evidence of a host response to a R. salmoninarum infection. Journal of Fish Diseases 27, 193–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1985a) Charcoal agar, a new growth medium for the fish disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 50, 868–871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, .R.M.W. (1985b) Importance of culturing several organs to detect Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114, 909–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1987) Hydrophobic and haemagglutinating properties of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of General Microbiology 133, 3575–3580.Google Scholar
  85. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1989) Agglutination of salmonid spermatozoa by Renibacterium salmoninarum. Fish Health News. Google Scholar
  86. Daly, J.G. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1990) Characterization of the Renibacterium salmoninarum haemagglutinins. Journal of General Microbiology 136, 949–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Daly, J.G., Griffiths, S.G., Kew, A.K., Moore, A.R. and Olivier, G. (2001) Characterization of attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strains and their use as live vaccines. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 44, 121–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Decew, M.G. (1972) Antibiotic toxicity, efficacy and teratogenicity in adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29, 1513–1517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Densmore, C.L., Smith, S.A. and Holladay, S.D. (1998) In vitro effects of the extracellular protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum of phagocyte function in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 62, 349–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Dos Santos, N.M.S., do Vale, A., Sousa, M.J. and Silva, M.T. (2002) Mycobacterial infection in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 52, 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Dulin, M.P. (1979) A review of tuberculosis (mycobacteriosis) in fish. Veterinary medicine/Small Aninal Clinician May 1979, 735–737.Google Scholar
  92. Earp, B.J. (1950) Kidney disease in young salmon. M.S. Thesis, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  93. Earp, B.J., Ellis, C.H. and Ordal, E.J. (1953) Kidney disease in young salmon. Washington, Department of Fisheries, Special Report 1, 1–74.Google Scholar
  94. Earp, B.J., Ellis, C.H. and Ordal, E.J. (1953) Kidney disease in young salmon. Washington, Department of Fisheries, Special Report 1, 1–74.Google Scholar
  95. Elliott, D.G. and McKubben, C.L. (1997) Comparison of two fluorescent antibody techniques (FATs) for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum coelomic fluid of spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Diseases of Aquatic Oganisms 30, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Elliott, D.G. and Pascho, R.J. (2001) Evidence that coded-wire-tagging procedures can enhance transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 13, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ellis, R.W., Novotny, A.J. and Harrell, L.W. (1978) Case report of kidney disease in a wild chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the sea. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 14, 120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Embley, T.M. (1983) Aspects of the biology of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.Google Scholar
  99. Embley, T.M., Goodfellow, M. and Austin, B. (1982) A semi-defined growth medium for Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 14, 299–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Embley, T.M., Goodfellow, M., Minnikin, D.E. and Austin, B. (1983) Fatty acid, isoprenoid quinone and polar lipid composition in the classification of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 55, 31–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Etchegaray, J.P., Matínez, M.A., Krauskopf, M. and León, G. (1991) Molecular cloning of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA fragments. FEMS Microbiology Letters 79, 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Evely, M.M., Donahue, J.M., Sells, S.F. and Loynachan, A.T. (2011) Ocular mycobacteriosis in a red-bellied piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri Kner. Journao of Fish Diseases 34, 323–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Evelyn, T.P.T. (1971c) The agglutinin response in sockeye salmon vaccinated intraperitoneally with a heat-killed preparation of the bacterium responsible for salmonid kidney disease. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 7, 328–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Evelyn, T.P.T. (1977) An improved growth medium for the kidney bacterium and some notes on using the medium. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 87, 511–513.Google Scholar
  105. Evelyn, T.P.T. (1978) Sensitivities of bacterial kidney disease detection methods with special remarks on the culture method. Proceedings of the Joint 3rd Biennial Fish Health Section, American Fisheries Society and 9th Annual Midwest Fish Disease Workshops, Kansas City, 12.Google Scholar
  106. Evelyn, T.P.T., Hoskins, G.E. and Bell, G.R. (1973) First record of bacterial kidney disease in an apparently wild salmonid in British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30, 1578–15870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Evelyn, T.P.T., Ketcheson, J.E. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1981) The clinical significance of immunofluorescence-based diagnosis of the bacterial kidney disease carrier. Fish Pathology 15, 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Evelyn, T.P.T., Ketcheson, J.E. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1984) Further evidence for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid eggs and for the failure of povidine-iodine to reduce the intra-ovum infection in water-hardened eggs. Journal of Fish Diseases 7, 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Evelyn, T.P.T., Prosperi-Porta, L. and Ketcheson, J.E. (1986a) Experimental intra-ovum infection of salmonid eggs with Renibacterium salmoninarum and vertical transmission of the pathogen with such eggs despite their treatment with erythromycin. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 1, 197–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Evelyn, T.P.T., Ketcheson, J.E. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1986b) Use of erythromycin as a means of preventing vertical transmission of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 2, 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Evelyn, T.P.T., Bell, G.R., Prosperi-Porta, L. and Ketcheson, J.E. (1989) A simple technique for accelerating the growth of the kidney disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum on a commonly used culture medium (KDM2). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 7, 231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Evelyn, T.P.T. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1989) Inconsistent performance of KDM2, a culture medium for the kidney disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum, due to variation in the composition of its peptone ingredient. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 7, 227–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Evelyn, T.P.T., Prosperi-Porta, L. and Ketcheson, J.E. (1990) Two new techniques for obtaining consistent results when growing Renibacterium salmoninarum on KDM2 medium. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 9, 209–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Evenden, A.J., Gilpin, M.L. and Munn, C.B. (1990) The cloning and expression of a gene encoding haemolytic activity from the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 71, 31–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Fiedler, F. and Draxl, R. (1986) Biochemical and immunochemical properties of the cell surface of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of Bacteriology 168, 799–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Forsyth, R.B., Candido, E.P.M., Babich, S.L. and Iwama, G.K. (1997) Stress protein expression in coho salmon with bacterial kidney disease. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Frantsi, C., Flewelling, T.C. and Tidswell, K.G. (1975) Investigations on corynebacterial kidney disease and Diplostomulum sp. (eye-fluke) at Margaree Hatchery, 1972–73. Technical Report Series, MAR/T-75-9: 30pp. Resource Development Branch of the Fisheries and Marine Service, Canadian Department of the Interior.Google Scholar
  118. Fryer, J.L. and Sanders, J.E. (1981) Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fish. Annual Review of Microbiology 35, 273–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ferguson, H.W., Turnbull, J.F., Shinn, A., Thompson, K., Dung, T.T. and Crumlish, M. (2001) Bacillary necrosis in farmed Pangasius hypophthalmus (Sauvage) from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Journal of Fish Diseases 24, 509–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Gahlawat, S.K., Ellis, A.E. and Collet, B. (2009) A sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gauthier, D.T., Rhodes, M.W., Vogelbein, W.K., Kator, H. and Ottinger, C.A. (2003) Experimental mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 54, 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Gauthier, D.T., Vogelbein, W.K. and Ottinger, C.A. (2004) Ultrastructure of Mycobacterium marinum granuloma in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 62, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Gauthier, D.T., Reece, K.S., Xiao, J., Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H.I., Latour, R.J., Bonzek, C.F., Hoenig, J.M. and Vogelbein, W.K. (2010) Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the Chesapeake Bay. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76, 6171–6179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Gauthier, D.T., Vogelbein, W.K., Rhodes, M.W. and Reece, K.S. (2011a) Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii in striped bass. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 20, 192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Gauthier, D.T., Helenthal, A.M., Rhodes, M.W., Vogelbein, W.K. and Kator, H.I. (2011b) Characterization of photochromogenic Mycobacterium spp. from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 95, 113–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Getchell, R.G., Rohovec, J.S. and Fryer, J.L. (1985) Comparison of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates by antigenic analysis. Fish Pathology 20, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ghittino, P. and Penna, P. (1968) Recherches microbiologiques sur la nocardiose de la truite arc-en-ciel. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 69, 1045–1056.Google Scholar
  128. Gil, P., Vivas, J., Gallardo, C.S. and Rodríguez, L.A. (2000) First isolation of Staphylococcus warneri, from diseased rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Northwest Spain. Journal of Fish Diseases 23, 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Gomez, S., Bernabe, A., Gomez, M.A., Navarro, J.A. and Sanchez, J. (1993) Fish mycobacteriosis: morphological and immunocytochemical aspects. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 137–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. González, M., Sánchez, F., Concha, M.I., Figueroa, J., Montecinos, M.I. and León, G. (1999) Evaluation of the internalization process of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum in cultured fish cells. Journal of Fish Diseases 22, 231–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Goodfellow, M. (1971) Numerical taxonomy of some nocardioform bacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 69, 33–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Goodfellow, M., Embley, T.M. and Austin, B. (1985) Numerical taxonomy and emended description of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of General Microbiology 131, 2739–2752.Google Scholar
  133. Goodwin, A.E., Spencer Roy, Jr, J., Grizzle, J.M. and Terrell Goldsby Jr, M. (1994) Bacillus mycoides: a bacterial pathogen of channel catfish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 173–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Gordon, R.E. and Mihm, J.M. (1959) A comparison of four species of mycobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 21, 736–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Grayson, T.H., Evenden, A.J., Gilpin, M.L. and Munn, C.B. (1995a) Production of a Renibacterium salmoninarum hemolysin fusion protein in Escherichia coli K12. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22, 153–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Grayson, T.H., Bruno, D.W., Evenden, A.J., Gilpin, M.L. and Munn, C.B. (1995b) Iron acquisition by Renibacterium salmoninarum: contribution of iron reductase. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 22, 157–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Grayson, T.H., Cooper, L.F., Atienzar, F.A., Knowles, M.R. and Gilpin, M.L. (1999) Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65, 961–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Grayson, T.H., Gilpin, M.L., Evenden, A.J., and Munn, C.B. (2001) Evidence for the immune recognition of two haemolysins of Renibacterium salmoninarum by fish displaying clinical symptoms of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 11, 367–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Griffiths, S.G., Olivier, G., Fildes, J. and Lynch, W.H. (1991) Comparison of western blot, direct fluorescent antibody and drop-plate culture methods for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 97, 117–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Griffiths, S.G., Liska, K. and Lynch, W.H. (1996) Comparison of kidney tissue and ovarian fluid from broodstock Atlantic salmon for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, and use of SKDM broth culture with Western blotting to increase detection in ovarian fluid. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 24, 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Gudmundsdóttir, S., Helgason, S. and Bendiktsdóttir, E. (1991) Comparison of the effectiveness of three different growth media for primary isolation of Renibacterium salmoninarum from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., broodfish. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Gudmundsdóttir, S., Benediktsdóttir, E. and Helgason, S. (1993) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid kidney samples: a comparison of results using double sandwich ELISA and isolation on selective medium. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 185–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Gudmundsdóttir, S., Helgason, S., Sigurjónsdóttir, H., Matthíadóttir, S., Jónsdóttir, H., Laxdal, B. and Benediktsdóttir, E. (2000) Measures applied to control Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in Atlantic salmon: a retrospective study of two sea ranches in Iceland. Aquaculture 186, 193–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Gunn, B.A., Singleton, F.L., Peele, E.R. and Colwell, R.R. (1982) A note on the isolation and enumeration of Gram-positive cocci from marine and estuarine waters. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 53, 127–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Gutenberger, S.K., Giovannoni, S.J., Field, K.G., Fryer, J.L. and Rohovec, J.S. (1991) A phylogenetic comparison of the 16S rRNA sequence of the fish pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum, to Gram-positive bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters 77, 151–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Gutenberger, S.K., Duimstra, J.R., Rohovec, J.S. and Fryer, J.L. (1997) Intracellular survival of Renibacterium salmoninarum in trout mononuclear macrophages. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 28, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Hao, M.V. and Komagata, K. (1985) A new species of Planococcus, P. kocurii isolated from fish, frozen foods, and fish curing brine. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 31, 441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Hardie, L.J., Ellis, A.E. and Secombes, C.J. (1996) In vitro activation of rainbow trout macrophages stimulates inhibition of Renibacterium salmoninarum growth concomitant with augmented generation of respiratory burst products. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 25, 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Hariharan, H., Qian, B., Despres, B., Kibenge, F.S., Heaney, S.B. and Rainnie, D.J. (1995) Development of a specific biotinylated DNA probe for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 59, 306–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Hatai, K., Lawhavinit, O., Toda, K. and Sugou, Y. (1993) Mycobacterium infection in pejerrey, Odonthestes bonariensis Cuvier & Valenciennes. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 397–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Heckert, R.A., Elankumaran, S., Milani, A. and Baya, A. (2001) Detection of a new Mycobacterium species in wild striped bass in the Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39, 710–715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Henryon, M., Berg, P., Olesen, N.J., Kjaer, T.E., Slierendrecht, W.J., Jokumsen, A. and Lund, I. (2005) Selective breeding provides an approach to increase resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) to the diseases, enteric redmouth disease, rainbow trout fry syndrome, and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia. Aquaculture 250, 621–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Heuschmann-Brunner, G. (1965a) Nocardiose bei Fischen des Süsswassers und des Meeres. Berliner und Munchener Tierärzliche Wochenschrift 78, 95–97.Google Scholar
  154. Heuschmann-Brunner, G. (1965b) Ein Beitrag zur Erregerfrage der Infektiösen Bauchwassersucht des Karpfens. Allgemeine Fischerei Zeitung 90, 41–49.Google Scholar
  155. Hirvelä-Koski, V. (2004) Renibacterium salmoninarum: effect of hypochlorite treatment, and survival in water. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 59, 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Hirvelä-Koski, V., Pohjanvirta, T., Koski, P. and Sukura, A. (2006). Atypical growth of Renibacterium salmoninarum in subclinical infections. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Hoffman, R., Popp, W. and Van der Graaff, S. (1984) Atypical BKD predominantly causing ocular and skin lesions. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 4, 7–9.Google Scholar
  158. Hoffman, R.W., Bell, G.R., Pfeil-Putzien, C. and Ogawa, M. (1989) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in tissue sections by different methods - a comparative study with special regard to the indirect immunohistochemical peroxidase technique. Fish Pathology 24, 101–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Hsu, H.-M., Bowser, P.R. and Schachte, J.H. (1991) Development and evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the diagnosis of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 3, 168–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Hsu, H.-M., Wooster, G.A. and Bowser, P.R. (1994) Efficacy of enrofloxacin for the treatment of salmonids with bacterial kidney disease, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 3, 220–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Isik, K., Chun, J., Hah, Y.C. and Goodfellow, M. (1999) Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev., a fish pathogen. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 49, 833–837.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Itano, T. and Kawakami, H. (2002) Drug susceptibility of recent isolates of Nocardia seriolae from cultured fish. Fish Pathology 37, 152–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Itano, T., Kawakami, H., Kono, T. and Sakai, M. (2006) Detection of fish nocardiosis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100, 1381–1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Itano, T., Kawakami, H., Kono, T. and Sakai, M. (2006a) Experimental induction of nocardiosis in yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata Temminck & Schlegel by artificial challenge. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 529–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Itano, T., Kawakami, H., Kono, T. and Sakai, M. (2006b) Live vaccine trials against nocardiosis in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Aquaculture 261, 1175–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Jacobs, J.M., Rhodes, M.R., Baya, A., Reimschuessel, R., Townsend, H. and Harrell, R.M. (2009) Influence of nutritional state on the progression and severity of mycobacteriosis in striped bass Morone saxatilis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 87, 183–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Jansson, E., Hongslo, T., Lindberg, R., Ljungberg, O. and Svensson, B.-M. (1991) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum and Yersinia ruckeri by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical technique in melanin-containing cells of fish tissue. Journal of Fish Diseases 14, 689–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Jansson, E., Hongslo, T., Höglund, J. and Ljungberg, O. (1996) Comparative evaluation of bacterial culture and two ELISA techniques for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum antigens in salmonid kidney tissues. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 27, 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Jansson, E. and Ljungberg, O. (1998) Detection of humoral antibodies to Renibacterium salmoninarum in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar challenged by immersion and in naturally infected populations. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 33, 93–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Jansson, E., Hongslo, T., Johannisson, A., Pilström, L., Timmusk, S. and Norrgren, L. (2003) Bacterial kidney disease as a model for studies of cell mediated immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 14, 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Jansson, E., Lindberg, L., Säker, E. and Aspán, A. (2008) Diagnosis of bacterial kidney disease by detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum by real-time PCR. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 755–763.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Jónsdóttir, H., Malmquist, H.J., Snorrason, S.S., Gudbergsson, G. and Gudmundsdóttir, S. (1998) Epidemiology of Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild Arctic charr and brown trout in Iceland. Journal of Fish Biology 53, 322–339.Google Scholar
  173. Kaattari, I.M., Rhodees, M.W., Kator, H. and Kaattari, S.L. (2005) Comparative analysis of mycobacterial infections in wild striped bass Morone saxatilis from Chesapeake Bay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 67, 125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Kaattari, I.M., Rhodes, M.W., Kaattari, S.L. and Shotts, E.B. (2006) The evolving story of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clade members detected in fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 509–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Kanetsuna, F. and Bartoli, A. (1972) A simple chemical method to differentiate Mycobacterium from Nocardia. Journal of General Microbiology 70, 209–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Kariya, T., Kubota, S., Nakamura, Y. and Kira, K. (1968) Nocardial infection in cultured yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and S. purpurascens). 1. Bacteriological study. Fish Pathology 3, 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Kato, G., Kondo, H., Aoki, T. and Hirono, I. (2010) BCG vaccine confers adaptive immunity against Mycobacterium sp. infection in fish. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 34, 133–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Kawakami, K. and Kusuda, R. (1989) In vitro effect of some chemotherapeutics on the causative of Mycobacterium infection in yellowtail. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55, 2111–2114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Kawakami, K. and Kusuda, R. (1990) Efficacy of rifampicin, streptomycin and erythromycin against experimental Mycobacterium infection in cultured yellowtail. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 56, 51–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Ke, X., Lu, M., Ye, X., Gao, F., Zhu, H. and Huang, Z. (2012) Recovery and pathogenicity analysis of Aerococcus viridans isolated from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in Southwest of China. Aquaculture 342 343, 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Kimura, T., Ezura, K., Tajima, K. and Yoshimizu, M. (1978b) Serological diagnosis of bacterial kidney disease (BKD); immunodiffusion test by heat stable antigen extracted from infected kidney. Fish Pathology 13, 103–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Klontz, G. (1978) Prevention of bacterial kidney disease in adult and juvenile salmonids. Proceedings of the Joint 3rd Biennial Fish Health Section and 9th Annual Midwest Fish Disease Workshops, Kansas City, 11–14.Google Scholar
  183. Kloos, W.E. and Schliefer, K.H. (1986) Genus IV. Staphylococcus Rosenbach 1884, 18AL, Nom. Cons. Opin. 17 Jud. Comm. 1858, 153. In: Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S., Sharpe, M.E. and Holt, J.G. (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 2, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, p. 1013–1035.Google Scholar
  184. Knibb, W., Colorni, A., Ankaoua, M., Lindell, D., Diamant, A. and Gordin, H. (1993) Detection and identification of a pathogenic marine mycobacterium from the European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of 16S rRNA sequences. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology 2, 225–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Kocur, M. (1986) Genus 1. Micrococcus Cohn 1872, 151AL. In: Sneath, P.H.A., Mair, N.S., Sharpe, M.E. and Holt, J.G. (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Vol. 2, Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, p. 1004–1008.Google Scholar
  186. Kubilay, A. and Uloköy, G. (2004) First isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)in Turkey. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 24, 137–143.Google Scholar
  187. Kubota, S., Kariya, T., Nakamura, Y. and Kira, K. (1968) Nocardial infection in cultured yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata and S. purpurascens). II. Histological study. Fish Pathology 3, 24–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Kudo, T., Hatai, K. and Seino, A. (1988) Nocardia seriolae sp. nov. causing nocardiosis of cultured fish. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 38, 173–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Kusser, W. and Fiedler, F. (1983) Murein type and polysaccharide composition of cell walls from Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 20, 391–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Kusuda, R., Taki, H. and Takeuchi, T. (1974) Studies on a nocardia infection of cultured yellowtail. II. Characteristics of Nocardia kampachi isolated from a gill-tuberculosis of yellowtail. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 40, 369–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Kusuda, R. and Nakagawa, A. (1978) Nocardia infection of cultured yellowtail. Fish Pathology 13, 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Kusuda, R. and Sugiyama, A. (1981) Studies on the characters of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from diseased fishes - 1. On the morphological, biological and biochemical properties. Fish Pathology 16, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Laidler, L.A. (1980) Detection and identification of the bacterial kidney disease (BKD) organism by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Journal of Fish Diseases 3, 67–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Lall, S.P., Paterson, W.D., Hines, J.A. and Adams, N.J. (1985) Control of bacterial kidney in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., by dietary modification. Journal of Fish Diseases 8, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Lansdell, W., Dixon, B., Smithin, N. and Benjamin, L. (1993) Isolation of several Mycobacterium species from fish. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 5, 73–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Latour, R.J., Gauthier, D.T., Gartland, J., Bonzek, C.F., McNamee, K.A. and Vogelbein, W.K. (2012) Impacts of mycobacteriosis on the growth of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in Chesapeake Bay. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 69, 247–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Lee, E.G.-H. and Gordon, M.R. (1987) Immunofluorescence screening of Renibacterium salmoninarum in the tissues and eggs of farmed chinook salmon spawners. Aquaculture 65, 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Lee, E.G.-H. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1989) Effect of Renibacterium salmoninarum levels in the ovarian fluid of spawning chinook salmon on the prevalence of the pathogen in their eggs and progeny. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 7, 179–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Lee, E.G.-H. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1994) Prevention of vertical transmission of the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum by broodstock injection with erythromycin. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. León, G., Maulén, N., Figueroa, J., Villanueva, J., Rodríguez, C., Vera, M.I. and Krauskopf, M. (1994a) A PCR based assay for the identification of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. FEMS Microbiology Letters 115, 131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. León, G., Martinez, M.A., Etchegaray, J.P., Vera, M.I., Figueroa, J. and Krauskopf, M. (1994b) Specific DNA probes for the identification of the fish pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology 10, 149–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Levi, M.H., Bartell, J., Gandolfo, L., Smole, S.C., Costa, S.F., Weiss, L.M., Johnson, L.K., Osterhout, G. and Herbst, L.H. (2003) Characterization of Mycobacterium montefiorense sp. nov., a novel pathogenic mycobacterium from Moray eels that is related to Mycobacterium triplex. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 41, 2147–2152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Locci, R., Baldacci, E. and Petrolini-Baldacci, B. (1969) The genus Streptoverticillium, a taxonomic study. Gionale Microbiologica 17, 1–60.Google Scholar
  204. Lorenzen, E., Dalsgaard, I. and Bernardet, J.-F. (1997) Characterization of isolates of Flavobacterium psychrophilum associated with coldwater disease or rainbow trout fry syndrome. I. Phenotypic and genotypic studies. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 31, 197–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Lovely, J.E., Cabo, C., Griffiths, S.G. and Lynch, W.H. (1994) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in asymptomatic Atlantic salmon. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6, 126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Mackie, T.J., Arkwright, J.A., Pryce-Tannatt, T.E., Motram, J.C. and Johnstone, W.R. (1930, 1933 and 1935) Interim, Second and Final Reports of the Furunculosis Committee. Edinburgh, H.M.S.O.Google Scholar
  207. MacLean, D.G. and Yoder, W.G. (1970) Kidney disease among Michigan salmon in 1967. Progressive Fish Culturist 32, 26–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Magneussen, H.B., Fridjónsson, Ó.H., Andrésson, Ó.S., Benediktsdóttir, E., Gudmundsdóttir, S. and Andrésdottír, V. (1994) Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causal agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, detected by nested reverse transcription-PCR of 16S rRNA sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, 4580–4583.Google Scholar
  209. Mainous, M.E. and Smith, S.A. (2005) Efficacy of common disinfectants against Mycobacterium marinum. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 17, 284–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Matsui, T., Nishizawa, T. and Yoshimizu, M. (2009) Modification of KDM-2 with culture-spent medium for isolation of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Fish Pathology 44, 139–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Maulén, N.P., Morales, P.J., Aruti, D., Figueroa, J.E., Concha, M.I., Krauskopf, M. and Maulén, G. (1996) Identification of Renibacterium salmoninarum DNA fragment associated with bacterial internalization into CHSE-cultured cells. FEMS Microbiology Letters 135, 3743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. McCarthy, D.H., Cory, T.R. and Amend, D.F. (1984) Immunization of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, against bacterial kidney disease: preliminary efficacy evaluation. Journal of Fish Diseases 7, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. McCormick, J.I., Hughes, M.S. and McLoughlin, M.F. (1995) Identification of Mycobacterium chelonae in a chichlid oscar Astronotus ocellatus Cuvier, by direct cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. Journal of Fish Diseases 18, 459–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. McIntosh, D., Meaden, P.G. and Austin, B. (1996) A simplified PCR-based method for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum utilizing preparations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) lymphocytes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 3929–3932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. McIntosh, D., Flaño, E., Grayson, T.H., Gilpin, M.L. and Austin, B. (1997) Production of putative virulence factors by Renibacterium salmoninarum grown in cell culture. Microbiology 143, 3349–3356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. McKibben, C.L. and Pascho, R.J. (1999) Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 38, 7579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Mesa, M.G., Maule, A.G., Poe, T.P. and Schreck, C.B. (1999) Influence of bacterial kidney disease on smoltification in salmonids: is it a case of double jeopardy? Aquaculture 174, 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Meyers, T.R., Short, S., Farrington, C., Lipson, K., Geiger, H.J. and Gates, R. (1993) Comparison of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) for measuring the prevalences and levels of Renibacterium salmoninarum in wild and hatchery stocks of salmonid fishes in Alaska, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 16, 181–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Millan, M. (1977) New diseases in salmon culture in Spain. Bulletin de l'Office International des Epizooties 87, 515–516.Google Scholar
  220. Mitchum, D.L., Sherman, L.E. and Baxter, G.T. (1979) Bacterial kidney disease in feral populations of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36, 1370–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Mitchum, D.L. and Sherman, L.E. (1981) Transmission of bacterial kidney disease from wild to stocked hatchery trout. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38, 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Miyoshi, Y. and Suzuki, S. (2003) PCR method to detect Nocardia seriolae in fish samples. Fish Pathology 38, 93–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Moles, A. (1997) Effect of bacterial kidney disease on saltwater adaptation of coho salmon smolts. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 230–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Murray, A.G., Hall, M., Munro, L.A. and Wallace, I.S. (2011) Modeling management strategies for a disease including undetected sub-clinical infection: bacterial kidney disease in Scottish salmon and trout farms. Epidemics 3, 171–182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Murray, C.B., Evelyn, T.P.T., Beacham, T.D., Barner, L.W., Ketcheson, J.E. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1992) Experimental induction of bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon by immersion and cohabitation challenges. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12, 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Nagai, T. and Iida, Y. (2002) Occurrence of bacterial kidney disease in cultured ayu. Fish Pathology 37, 77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Nigrelli, R.F. and Vogel, H. (1963) Spontaneous tuberculosis in fishes and in other cold-blooded vertebrates with special reference to Mycobacterium fortuitum Cruz from fish and human lesions. Zoologica (New York) 48, 130–143.Google Scholar
  228. Nilsson, W.B. and Strom, M.S. (2002) Detection and identification of bacterial pathogens of fish in kidney tissue using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 48, 175–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Novotny, L., Halouzka, R., Matlova, L., Vavra, O., Bartosova, L., Slany, M. and Pavlik, I. (2010) Morphology and distribution of granulomatous inflammation in freshwater ornamental fish infected with mycobacteria. Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 947–955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. O’Farrell, C.L. and Strom, M.S. (1999) Differential expression of the virulence-associated protein p57 and characterization of its duplicated gene msa in virulent and attenuated strains of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 38, 115–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Okuda, R., Nishizawa, T. and Yoshimizu, M. (2008) Limited availability of PCR for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. Fish Pathology 43, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Oladosu, G.A., Ayinla, O.A. and Ajiboye, M.O. (1994) Isolation and pathogenicity of a Bacillus sp. associated with a septicaemic condition in some tropical freshwater fish species. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 10, 69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Olea, I., Bruno, D.W. and Hastings, T.S. (1993) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in naturally infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Aquaculture 116, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Olivier, G., Griffiths, S.G., Fildes, J. and Lynch, W.H. (1992) The use of Western blot and electroimmunotransfer blot assays to monitor bacterial kidney disease in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 15, 229–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Olsen A.B., Mikalsen, J., Rode, M., Alfjorden, A., Hoel, E., Straum-Lie, K., Haldorsen, R. and Colquhoun, D.J. (2006) A novel systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease in farmed Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., associated with a bacterium belonging to the genus Francisella. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 307–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Olson, B.H. (1978) Enhanced accuracy of coliform testing in seawater by a modification of the Most Probable Number method. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 36, 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Ordal, E.J. and Earp, B.J. (1956) Cultivation and transmission of etiological agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fishes. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 92, 85–88.Google Scholar
  238. Paclibare, J.O., Evelyn, T.P.T., Albright, L.J. and Prosperi-Porta, L. (1994) Clearing of the kidney disease bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum from seawater by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and the status of the mussel as a reservoir of the bacterium. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 18, 129–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Parisot, T.J. and Wood, E.M. (1960) A comparative study of the causative agent of a mycobacterial disease of salmonid fishes. II. A description of the histopathology of the disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and a comparison of the strain characteristics of the fish disease with leprosy and human tuberculosis. Annual Review of Respiratory Diseases 82, 212–222.Google Scholar
  240. Pascho, R.J., Elliott, D.G., Mallett, R.W. and Mulcahy, D. (1987) Comparison of five techniques for the detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in adult coho salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116, 882–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Pascho, R.J., Landolt, M.L. and Ongerth, J.E. (1995) Inactivation of Renibacterium salmoninarum by free chlorine. Aquaculture 131, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Pascho, R.J., Chase, D. and McKibben, C.L. (1998) Comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid ovarian fluid. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10, 60–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Pasnik, D.J. and Smith, S.A. (2005) Immunogenic and protective effects of a DNA vaccine for Mycobacterium marinum in fish. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 103, 195–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Pasnik, D.J. and Smith, S.A. (2006) Immune and histopathologic responses of DNA-vaccinated hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops after acute Mycobacterium marinum infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73, 33–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Pate, M., Jencic, V., Zolnir-Dovc, M. and Ocepek, M. (2005) Detection of mycobacteria in aquarium fish in Slovenia by culture and molecular methods. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Paterson, W.D., Gallant, C., Desautels, D. and Marshall, L. (1979) Detection of bacterial kidney disease in wild salmonids in the Margaree River system and adjacent waters using an indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 36, 1464–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Paterson, W.D., Lall, S.P. and Desautels, D. (1981) Studies on bacterial kidney disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Canada. Fish Pathology 15, 283–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Perdiguero, G.M., Barrientos, A., Madrid, E. and Birkbeck, T.H. (2011) Isolation of Rhodococcus erythropolis from vaccinated Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. smolts in Chile. Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Piganelli, J.D., Wiens, G.D. and Kaattari, S.L. (1999) Elevated temperature treatment as a novel method for decreasing p57 on the cell surface of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 36, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Pippy, J.H.C. (1969) Kidney disease in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Margaree River. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26, 2535–2537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Pirhonen, J,, Schreck, C.B. and Gannam, A. (2000) Appetite of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) naturally infected with bacterial kidney disease. Aquaculture 189, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Poort, M.J., Whipps, C.M., Watral, V.G., Font, W.F. and Kent, M.L. (2006) Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium species in non-native poeciliids in Hawaii using DNA sequences. Journal of Fish Diseases 29, 181–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Powell, M., Overturf, K., Hogge, C. and Johnson, K. (2005) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in Chinook salmon, Oncorynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), using quantitative PCR. Journal of Fish Diseases 28, 615–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Powell, M., D., Harris, J.O., Carson, J. and Hill, J.V. (2005a) Effects of gill abrasion and experimental infection with Tenacibaculum maritimum on the respiratory physiology of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar affected with amoebic gill disease. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63, 169–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Puttinaowarat, S., Thompson, K.D., Kolk, A. and Adams, A. (2002) Identification of Mycobacterium spp. Isolated from snakehead, Channa striata (Fowler), and Siamese fighting fish , Betta splendens (Regan), using polymerase chain reaction-reverse cross blot hybridization (PCR-RCBH). Journal of Fish Diseases 25, 235–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Pychynski, T., Malanowska, T. and Kozlowski, M. (1981) Bacterial flora in branchionecrosis of carp (particularly Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis). Medycyna Weterynaryjna 37, 742–743.Google Scholar
  257. Ramsay, J.M., Watral, V., Schreck, C.B. and Kent, M.L. (2009) Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 931–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Ranger, B.S., Mahrous, E.A., Mosi, L., Adusumilli, S., Lee, R.E., Colorni, A., Rhodes, M. and Small, P.L.C. (2006) Globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens produce a novel plasmid-encoded toxic macrolide, mycolactone F. Infection and Immunity 74, 6037–6045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Rhodes, L.D., Coady, A.M. and Strom, M.S. (2002) Expression of duplicate msa genes in the salmonid pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 5480–5487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Rhodes, L.D., Coady, A.M. and Deinhard, R.K. (2004) Identification of a third msa gene in Renibacterium salmoninarum and the associated virulence phenotype. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 6488–6494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Rhodes, L.D., Rathbone, C.K., Corbett, S.C., Harrell, L.W. and Strom, M.S. (2004a) Efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 16, 461–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Rhodes, L.D., Nguyen, O.T., Deinhard, R.K., White, T.M., Harrell, L.W. and Roberts, M.C. (2008) Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 80, 173–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H., Kaattari, I., Gauthier, D., Vogelbein, W. and Ottinger, C.A. (2004b) Isolation and characterization of mycobacteria from striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Chesapeake Bay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 61, 41–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H., Kotob, S., van Berkum, P., Kaattari, I., Vogelbein, W., Quinn, F., Floyd, M.M., Butler, W.R. and Ottinger, C.A. (2003) Mycobacterium shottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass Morone saxatilis). Internatioal Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53, 421–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Rhodes, M.W., Kator, H., McNabb, A., Deshayes, C., Reyrat, J.-M., Brown-Elliott, A., Wallace Jr, R., Trott, K.A., Parker, J.M., Lifland, B., Osterhout, G., Kaattari, I., Reece, K., Vogelbein, W. and Ottinger, C.A. (2005) Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii sp. nov., a slowly growing chromogenic species isolated from Chesapeake Bay striped bass (Morone saxatilis). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 55, 1139–1147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Ross, A.J. and Johnson, H.E. (1962) Studies of transmission of mycobacterial infections of chinook salmon. Progressive Fish Culturist 24, 147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Ross, A.J. and Brancato, F.P. (1959) Mycobacterium fortuitum Cruz from the tropical fish Hyphessobrycon innesi. Journal of Bacteriology 78, 392–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Ross, A.J. and Smith, C.A. (1972) Effect of two iodophors on bacterial and fungal fish pathogens. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29, 1359–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Rucker, R.R. (1949) A streptomycete pathogenic to fish. Journal of Bacteriology 58, 659–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Rucker, R.R., Bernier, A.F., Whipple, W.J. and Burrows, R.E. (1951) Sulfadiazine for kidney disease. Progressive Fish Culturist 13, 135–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Rucker, R.R., Earp, B.J. and Ordal, E.J. (1953) Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 83, 297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Runyon, E.H., Wayne, L.G. and Kubica, G.P. (1974) Genus 1. Mycobacterium Lehmann and Neumann 1896. In: Buchanan, R.E. and Gibbons, N.E. (eds), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 682–701.Google Scholar
  273. Sakai, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1989b) Comparison of methods used to detect Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 1, 21–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Sakai, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1989e) Attempted vaccination of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss against bacterial kidney disease. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55, 2105–2109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Sakai, M., Sugawara, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1990) The confirmatory diagnosis of bacterial kidney disease (BKD) using dot and western blotting assay. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 10, 77–80.Google Scholar
  276. Sakai, M. and Kobayashi, M. (1992) Detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fish, from pen-cultured coho salmon. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58, 1061–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Sakai, M., Otubo, T., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1993a) Enhancement of resistance to bacterial infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), by oral administration of bovine lactoferrin. Journal of Fish Diseases 16, 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Sakai, M., Atsuta, S. and Kobayashi, M. (1993b) The immune response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected with five Renibacterium salmoninarum bacterins. Aquaculture 113, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Sakai, M., Konno, T., Tassakka, A.C.M.A.R., Ponpornpisit, A., Areechon, N., Katagiri, T., Yoshida, T. and Endo, M. (2005) Characterization of a Mycobacterium sp. isolated from guppy Poecilia reticulata, using 16S ribosomal RNA and its internal transcribed spacer sequences. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 25, 64–69.Google Scholar
  280. Saleh, M., Soliman, H. and El-Matbouli, M. (2008b) Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81, 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Salonius, K., Siderakis, C., MacKinnon, A.M. and Griffiths, S.G. (2005) Use of Arthrobacter davidanieli as a live vaccine against Renibacterium salmoninarum and Piscirickettsia salmonis in salmonids. In: Progress in Fish Vaccinology, ed. Midlyng, P.J., p. 189–197. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  282. Sandell, T.A. and Jacobson, K.C. (2011) Comparison and evaluation of Renibacterium salmoninarum quantitative PCR diagnostic assays using field samples of Chinook and coho salmon. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 93, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Sanders, J.E. and Fryer, J.L. (1978) Corynebacterium salmoninus sp. nov. the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease; selected biochemical properties and pathogenesis in salmonid fishes. Proceedings of the Joint 3rd Biennial Fish Health Section/American Fisheries Society and 9th Annual Midwest Fish Disease Workshops, Kansas City, 2833.Google Scholar
  284. Sanders, J.E., Pilcher, K.S. and Fryer, J.L. (1978) Relation of water temperature to bacterial kidney disease in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35, 8–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Sanders, J.E. and Fryer, J.L. (1980) Renibacterium salmoninarum gen. nov., sp. nov., the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease in salmonid fishes. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 30, 496–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Senson, P.R. and Stevenson, R.M.W. (1999) Production of the 57 kDa major surface antigen by a non-agglutinating strain of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 38, 23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Shah, K.L. and Tyagi, B.C. (1986) An eye disease in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, held in tropical ponds, associated with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Aquaculture 55, 1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Shieh, H.S. (1989a) Blood-free media for the cultivation of the fish kidney disease bacterium, Renibacterium salmoninarum. Microbios letters. Google Scholar
  289. Shieh, H.S. (1989b) An extracellular toxin produced by the fish kidney disease bacterium, Renibacterium salmoninarum. Microbios letters. Google Scholar
  290. Shimahara, Y., Yasuda, H., Nakamura, A., Itami, T. and Yoshida, T. (2005) Detection of antibody responses against Nocardia seriolae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a preliminary vaccine trial in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathologists 25, 270–275.Google Scholar
  291. Shimahara, Y., Nakamura, A., Nomoto, R., Itami, T., Chen, S.-C. and Yoshida, T. (2008) Genetic and phenotypic comparison of Nocardia seriolae solated from fish in Japan. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 481–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Shimahara, Y., Huang, Y.-F., Tsai, M.-A., Wang, P.-C., Yoshida, T., Lee, J.-L. and Chen, S.-C. (2009) Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of fish pathogen, Nocardia seriolae, isolated in Taiwan. Aquaculture 294, 165–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Shinobu, R. (1965) Taxonomy of the whorl-forming Streptomycetaceae. Memoirs of Osaka University Liberal Arts, Education and Natural Sciences 14, 72–201.Google Scholar
  294. Smith, I.W. (1964) The occurrence and pathology of Dee disease. Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland, Freshwater Salmon Fisheries Research 34, 1–12.Google Scholar
  295. Snieszko, S.F. and Griffin, P.J. (1955) Kidney disease in brook trout and its treatment. Progressive Fish Culturist 17, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Snieszko, S.F., Bullock, G.L., Dunbar, C.E. and Pettijohn, L.L. (1964b) Nocardial infection in hatchery-reared fingerling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Journal of Bacteriology 88, 1809–1810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. Speare, D.J. (1997) Differences in patterns of meningoencephalitis due to bacterial kidney disease in farmed Atlantic and chinook salmon. Research in Veterinary Science 62, 79–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Speare, D.J., Brocklebank, J., Macnair, N. and Bernard, K.A. (1995) Experimental transmission of a salmonid Rhodococcus sp. isolate to juvenile Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 18, 587–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Stackebrandt, E., Wehmeyer, U., Nader, H. and Fiedler, F. (1988) Phylogenetic relationship of the fish pathogenic Renibacterium salmoninarum to Arthrobacter, Micrococcus and related taxa. FEMS Microbiology Letters 50, 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Starliper, C.E. (1996) Genetic diversity of North American isolates of Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 27, 207–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Stine, C.B., Baya, A.M., Salierno, J.D., Kollner, M. and Kane, A.S. (2005) Mycobacterial infection in laboratory-maintained Atlantic menhaden. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 17, 380–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Stine, C.B., Jacobs, J.M., Rhodes, M.R., Overton, A., Fast, M. and Baya, A.M. (2009) Expanded range and new host species of Mycobacterium shottsii and M. pseudoshottsii. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 21, 179–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Sugiyama, A., Kusuda, R. (1981a) Studies on the characters of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from diseased fishes - II. Serological properties of the isolates. Fish Pathology 16, 25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Sugiyama, A. and Kusuda, R. (1981b) Studies on the characters of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from diseased fishes - II. A comparative study on the serological properties between the isolates and the strains of human origin. Fish Pathology 16, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Suzumoto, B.K., Schreck, C.B. and McIntyre, J.D. (1977) Relative resistance of three transferrin genotypes of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their hematological responses to bacterial kidney disease. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Swaim, L.E., Connolly, L.E., Volkman, H.E., Humbert, O., Born, D.E. and Ramakrishnan, L. (2006) Mycobacterium marinum infection of adult zebra fish causes caseating granulomatous tuberculosis and is moderated by adaptive immunity. Infection and Immunity 74, 6108–6117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Talaat, A.M., Trucksis, M., Kane, A.S. and Reimschuessel, R. (1999) Pathogenicity of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis to goldfish Carassius auratus. Veterinary Microbiology 66, 151–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Teska, J.D., Twerdok, L.E., Beaman, J., Curry, M. and Finch, R.A. (1997) Isolation of Mycobacterium abscessus from Japanese Meduka. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 234–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Teska, J.D., Twerdok, L.E., Beaman, J., Curry, M. and Finch, R.A. (1997) Isolation of Mycobacterium abscessus from Japanese Meduka. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 9, 234–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Toranzo, A.E., Romalde, J.L., Núñez, S., Figueras, A. and Barja, J.L. (1993) An epizootic in farmed, market-size rainbow trout in Spain caused by a strain of Carnobacterium piscicola of unusual virulence. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 17, 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Uribe, J.C., Vial, M.V., Carvajal, J., Onate, R. and Teuber, C. (1995) Increasing prevalence of BKD: an inadequate management during salmon transfer to seawater. Medio Ambiente 12, 60–66.Google Scholar
  312. Valdez, I.E. and Conroy, D.A. (1963) The study of a tuberculosis-like condition in neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon innesi) II. Characteristics of the bacterium isolated. Microbiología española 16, 249–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Van Duijn, C. (1981) Tuberculosis in fishes. Journal of Small Animal Practice 22, 391–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Vladik, P., Vitovac, J. and Carvinka, S. (1974) The taxonomy of gram-positive immobile diplobacilli isolated from nectroizing nephroses in American charr and rainbow trout. Veterinami Medicina (Praha) 19, 233–238.Google Scholar
  315. Von Betegh, L. (1910) Weitere Beiträge zur experimentellen Tuberkulose der Meeresfischen. Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Abteilung 1 53, 54.Google Scholar
  316. Wang, G.-L., Yuan, S.-P. and Jin, S. (2005) Nocardiosis in large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea (Richardson). Journal of Fish Diseases 28, 339–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Wang, G.-L., Xu, Y.-J., Jin, S., Zhu, J.-L. and Yuan, S.-P. (2007) Nocardiosis in snakehead (Ophiocephalus argus Cantor). Aquaculture 271, 54–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. Wang, P.-C., Chen, S.-D., Tsai, M.-A., Weng, Y-J., Chu, S.-Y., Chern, R.-S. and Chen, S.-C. (2009) Nocardia seriolae infection in the three striped tiger fish, Terapon jarbua (Forsskål). Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 301–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Wang, W.-S., Chang, Y.-C., Shieh, M.-T. and Lin, C.-C. (1996) Staphylococcus epidermidis and cestode infection of cultured grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Taiwan. Reports on Fish Disease Research 17, 57–63.Google Scholar
  320. Warren, J.W. (1963) Kidney disease of salmonid fishes and the analysis of hatchery waters. Progressive Fish Culturist 25, 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Wedemeyer, G.A. and Ross, A.J. (1973) Nutritional factors in the biochemical pathology of corynebacterial kidney disease in the coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 30, 296–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Weiland, L.K., Mesa, M.G. and Maule, A.G. (1999) Influence of infection with Renibacterium salmoninarum on susceptibility of juvenile spring chinook salmon to gas bubble trauma. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 11, 123–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Whipps, C.M., Watral, V.G. and Kent, M.L. (2003) Characterization of a Mycobacterium sp. in rockfish, Sebastes alutus (Gilbert) and Sebastes reedi (Westrheim & Tsuyuki), using rDNA sequences. Journal of Fish Diseases 26, 241–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Whipps, C.M., Butler, W.R., Pourahmad, F., Watral, V.G. and Kent, M.L. (2007) Molecular systematics support the revival of Mycobacterium salmoniphilum (ex Ross 1960) sp. nov., nom. rev., a species closely related to Mycobacterium chelonei. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 57, 2525–2531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Wiens, G.D. and Kaattari, S.L. (1991) Monoclonal antibody characterization of a leukoagglutinin produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum. Infection and Immunity 59, 631–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. Wiens, W.D., Chien, M.-S., Winton, J.R. and Kaattari, S.L. (1999) Antigenic and functional characterization of p57 produced by Renibacterium salmoninarum. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 37, 43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. Wiens, G.D., Pascho, R. and Winton, J.R. (2002). A single ala139 –to glu substitution in the Renibacterium salmoninarum virulence-associated protein p57 results in antigenic variation and is associated with enhanced p57 binding to Chinook salmon leukocytes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68, 3969–3977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Wiens, G.D., Rockey, D.D., Wu, Z., Chang, J., Levy, R., Crane, S., Chen, D.S., Capri, G.R., Burnett, J.R., Sudheesh, P.S., Schipma, M.J., Burd, H., Bhattacharya, A., Rhodes, L.D., Kaul, R. and Strom, M.S. (2008) Genome sequence of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum suggest reductive evolution away from an environmental Arthrobacter ancestor. Journal of Bacteriology 190, 6970–6982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Wiens, G.D. and Dale, O.B. (2009) Renibacterium salmoninarum p57 antigenic variation is restricted in geographical distribution and correlated with genomic markers. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 83, 123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Williams, S.T., Locci, R.., Vickers, J., Schofield, G.M., Sneath, P.H.A. and Mortimer, A.M. (1985) Probabilistic identification of Streptoverticillium species. Journal of General Microbiology 131, 1681–1689.Google Scholar
  331. Winter, G.W., Schreck, C.B. and McIntyre, J.D. (1979) Resistance of different stocks and transferrin genotypes of coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and steelhead trout, Salmo gairdneri, to bacterial kidney disease and vibriosis. Fishery Bulletin 77, 795–802.Google Scholar
  332. Withler, R.E. and Evelyn, T.P.T. (1990) Genetic variation in resistance to bacterial kidney disease within and between two strains of coho salmon from British Columbia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119, 1003–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Witt, D. and Stackebrandt, E. (1990) Unification of the genera Streptoverticillium and Streptomyces, and amendation of Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943, 339AL. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 13, 361–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Wolf, K. (1966) Bacterial kidney disease of salmonid fishes. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Division of Fisheries REsearch, Washington D.C. Fish Disease Leaflet No. 8.Google Scholar
  335. Wolf, K. and Dunbar, C.E. (1959) Test of 34 therapeutic agents for control of kidney disease in trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 88, 117–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Wolke, R.E. (1975) Pathology of bacterial and fungal diseases affecting fish. In: Ribelin, W.E. and Migaki, G. (eds), The Pathology of Fishes. Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Press, p.76–78.Google Scholar
  337. Wood, J.W. (1974) Diseases of Pacific Salmon, their prevention and treatment. Washington, Department of Fisheries.Google Scholar
  338. Wood, J.W. and Ordal, E.J. (1958) Tuberculosis in Pacific salmon and steelhead trout. Fish Commission of Oregon Control 25, 1–38.Google Scholar
  339. Wood, J.W. and Wallis, J. (1955) Kidney disease in adult chinook salmon and its transmission by feeding to young chinook salmon. Fisheries Commission of Oregon, Research Briefs 6, 32–40.Google Scholar
  340. Wood, P.A., Wiens, G.D., Rohovec, J.S. and Rockey, D.D. (1995) Identification of an immunologically cross reactive 60-kilodalton Renibacterium salmoninarum protein distinct from p57: implications for immunodiagnostics. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 7, 95–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Wood, P.A. and Kaattari, S.L. (1996) Enhanced immunogenicity of Renibacterium salmoninarum in chinook salmon after removal of the bacterial cell surface associated 57 kDa protein. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 25, 71–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. Woodall, A.N. and Laroche, G. (1964) Nutrition of salmonid fishes. XI. Iodide requirements of chinook salmon. Journal of Nutrition 824, 475–482.Google Scholar
  343. Yoshimizu, M., Ji, R., Nomura, T. and Kimura, T. (1987) A false positive reaction in the indirect fluorescent antibody test for Renibacterium salmoninarum ATCC 33209 caused by a Pseudomonas sp. Scientific Report of the Hokkaido Salmon Hatchery 41, 121–127.Google Scholar
  344. Young, C.L. and Chapman, G.B. (1978) Ultrastructural aspects of the causative agent and of bacterial kidney disease in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 35, 1234–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Zanani, R.G., Florio, D., Fioravanti, M.L., Rossi, M. and Prearo, M. (2008) Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. in ornamental fish in Italy. Journal of Fish Diseases 31, 433–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Zerihun, M.A., Hjortaas, M.J., Falk, K. and Colquhoun, D.J. (2011a) Immunohistochemical and Taqman real-time PCR detection of mycobacterial infections in fish. Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 235–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Zerihun, M.A., Berg, V., Lyche, J.L., Colquhoun, D.J. and Poppe, T.T. (2011b) Mycobacterium salmoniphilum infection in burbot Lota lota. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 95, 57–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Zerihun, M.A., Feist, S.W., Bucke, D., Olsen, A.B., Tandstad, N.M. and Colquhoun, D.J. (2011c) Francisella noatunensis subsp. noatunensis is the aetiological agent of visceral granulomatosis in wild Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. Diseases in Aquatic Organisms 95, 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Zerihun, M.A., Nilsen, H., Hodneland, H. and Colquhoun, D.J. (2011d) Mycobacterium salmoniphilum infection in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Journal of Fish Diseases 34, 769–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Zerihun, M.A., Colquhoun, D.J. and Poppe, T.T. (2012) Experimental mycobacteriosis in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L. Journal of Fish Diseases doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2012.01349.x

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Austin
    • 1
  • Dawn A. Austin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of AquacultureUniversity of StirlingStirlingUK
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesHeriot-Watt UniversityEdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations