The Onset, Course and Intensity of the Pollen Season

  • Åslög Dahl
  • Carmen Galán
  • Lenka Hajkova
  • Andreas Pauling
  • Branko Sikoparija
  • Matt Smith
  • Despoina Vokou


The onset, duration and intensity of the period when pollen is present in the air varies from year to year. Amongst other things, there is an effect upon the quality of life of allergy sufferers. The production and emission of pollens are governed by interacting environmental factors. Any change in these factors may affect the phenology and intensity of the season. Readiness to flower in a plant, and the amount of pollen produced, is the result of conditions during an often long period foregoing flowering. When a plant is ready to flower, temporary ambient circumstances e.g., irradiation and humidity, determine the timing of the actual pollen release. In order to understand variation between years and to be able to safely predict future situations, not least due to the ongoing climate change, it is necessary to know the determinants of all related processes and differences between and within species, here reviewed.


Anemophily Allergenic plants Phenology Readiness to flower Vernalization Onset of anthesis Chilling Dormancy Forcing Pollen release Pollen emission Circadian rhythms Pollen season duration Pollen index Flowering intensity Masting Pollen season severity Pollen production Climate change 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Åslög Dahl
    • 1
  • Carmen Galán
    • 2
  • Lenka Hajkova
    • 3
    • 4
  • Andreas Pauling
    • 5
  • Branko Sikoparija
    • 6
  • Matt Smith
    • 7
  • Despoina Vokou
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Botany, Ecology and Plant PhysiologyUniversity of CordobaCordobaSpain
  3. 3.Czech Hydrometeorological InstituteCharles UniversityUsti nad LabemCzech Republic
  4. 4.Faculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPrague 2Czech Republic
  5. 5.MeteoSwissZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Laboratory for Palynology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  7. 7.National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, Institute of HealthUniversity of WorcesterWorcesterUK
  8. 8.Department of Ecology, School of BiologyAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece

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