Advertisement

Problematising Practice, Reconceptualising Learning and Imagining Change

  • Paul Hager
  • Alison Lee
  • Ann Reich
Chapter
Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL, volume 8)

Abstract

Practice has become an increasingly crucial concept in the disciplines that deal with social life. Yet, it is evident that the term practice is typically employed in diverse and ambiguous ways. This is exacerbated by practice frequently being conjoined with a foregoing classifier, for example, legal practice, teaching practice, professional practice and literacy practice. In such cases, semantic attention typically centres on the classifier with the notion of practice being assumed to be unproblematic. This chapter seeks to problematise and defamiliarise taken-for-granted assumptions about practice and their relationship with learning. Five principles for theorising practice are proposed and discussed. These principles are deployed to suggest fresh understandings of learning and change in relation to practices. In turn, this illuminates issues around how practices are made and how they evolve and change.

Keywords

Professional Practice Professional Learning Literacy Practice Learning Practice Individual Practitioner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ball, D. L., & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J. Boaler (Ed.), Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 83–104). Westport: Alex.Google Scholar
  2. Baynham, M., & Baker, D. (2002). ‘Practice’ in literacy and numeracy research: Multiple perspectives. Ways of Knowing Journal, 2(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  3. Billett, S. (2002). ‘Workplace pedagogic practices: Co-participation and learning. British Journal of Educational Studies, 50(4), 457–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Billett, S. (2010). Learning vocational practice in relative social isolation: The epistemological and pedagogic practices of small business operators. In R. Poell & M. Van Woerkom (Eds.), Supporting workplace learning (pp. 147–164). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Billett, S. (2011). Learning through practice: Models, traditions, orientations and approaches. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Billett, S., & Newman, J. (2010). Learning practice: Conceptualising professional lifelong learning for the health-care sector. In H. Bradbury, N. Frost, S. Kilminster, & M. Zukas (Eds.), Beyond reflective practice: New approaches to professional lifelong learning (pp. 52–65). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Boud, D., & Lee, A. (Eds.). (2009). Changing practices of doctoral education. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Braithwaite, J. (1995). Organizational change, patient-focused care: An Australian perspective. Health Services Management Research, 8(3), 172–185.Google Scholar
  9. Brew, A. (2003). Teaching and research: New relationships and their implications for inquiry-based teaching and learning in higher education. Higher Education Research and Development, 22(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Britzman, D. P. (2009). The very thought of education: Psychoanalysis and the impossible professions. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  11. Carr, W. (2009). Practice without theory? A postmodern perspective on professional practice. In B. Green (Ed.), Understanding and researching professional practice (pp. 57–68). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Contu, A., & Willmott, H. (2003). Re-embedding situatedness: The importance of power relations in learning theory. Organization Science, 14(3), 283–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahlgren, M. A. (2011). Preparing for working life through higher education in Europe: The examples of Psychology and Political Science over four universities. In L. Scanlon (Ed.), ‘Becoming’ a professional: An interdisciplinary analysis of professional learning. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Davis, B., & Sumara, D. J. (2006). Complexity and education: Inquiries into learning, teaching and research. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Dreyfus, H. (2001). On the Internet. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Dreyfus, H. L., & Dreyfus, S. E. (1986). Mind over machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the era of the computer. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  17. Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. In Y. Engeström, R. Mietten, & R. Pumanmaki (Eds.), Perspectives on activity theory (pp. 19–38). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Towards an activity-theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14(1), 133–156.Google Scholar
  19. Eraut, M. (2009, April). The role of employers in professional learning. Paper presented at American Educational Research Association Conference, San Diego.Google Scholar
  20. Fejes, A., & Nicoll, K. (Eds.). (2008). Foucault and lifelong learning: Governing the subject. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Fenwick, T., & Edwards, R. (2010). Actor-network theory in education. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  22. Fenwick, T., Edwards, R., & Sawchuk, P. (2011). Emerging approaches to educational research: Tracing the sociomaterial. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making social science matter: Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gherardi, S. (2008). Situated knowledge and situated action: What do practice-based studies promise? In D. Barry & H. Hansen (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of new approaches in management and organization (pp. 516–525). Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Gherardi, S., & Nicolini, D. (2000). To transfer is to transform: The circulation of safety knowledge. Organization, 7(2), 329–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Green, B. (1991). Reading ‘readings’: Towards a postmodernist reading pedagogy. In C. D. Baker & A. Luke (Eds.), Towards a critical sociology of reading pedagogy (pp. 212–235). Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  27. Green, B. (2009a). Introduction: Understanding and researching professional practice. In B. Green (Ed.), Understanding and researching professional practice (pp. 1–18). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Green, B. (2009b). The primacy of practice and the problem of representation. In B. Green (Ed.), Understanding and researching professional practice (pp. 41–56). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  29. Hager, P. (2008). Learning and metaphors. Medical Teacher, 30(7), 679–686.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hager, P. (2011). Theories of workplace learning. In M. Malloch, L. Cairns, K. Evans, & B. N. O’Connor (Eds.), The Sage handbook of workplace learning (pp. 17–31). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Hager, P., & Halliday, J. (2006). Recovering informal learning: Wisdom, judgement and community. Dordrecht: Springer. (Reissued as a paperback in 2009)Google Scholar
  32. Hager, P., & Hodkinson, P. (2009). Moving beyond the metaphor of transfer of learning. British Educational Research Journal, 35(4), 619–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hodkinson, P., Biesta, G., & James, D. (2008). Understanding learning culturally: Overcoming the dualism between social and individual views of learning. Vocations and Learning, 1(1), 27–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hopwood, N. (2010). Dwelling in complexity: Relational-ecological understandings of context, space, place and the body in professional practice. Paper presented at Australian Association for Research in Education annual conference, Melbourne, 28 November–2 December. www.aare.edu.au
  35. Kalantzis, M., & Cope, B. (2009). New learning: Elements of a science of education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kemmis, S. (2005). Knowing practice: Searching for saliences. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 13(3), 391–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kemmis, S. (2009). Understanding professional practice: A synoptic framework. In B. Green (Ed.), Understanding and researching professional practice (pp. 19–39). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Kemmis, S. (2011). What is professional practice? Recognising and respecting diversity in understandings of practice. In C. Kanes (Ed.), Elaborating professionalism: Studies in practice and theory (pp. 139–165). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Kemmis, S., & Grootenboer, P. (2008). Situating praxis in practice: Practice architectures and the cultural, social and material conditions for practice. In S. Kemmis & T. J. Smith (Eds.), Enabling praxis: Challenges for education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  40. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lewin, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics. II. Human Relations, 1(2), 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Luntley, M. (2003). Wittgenstein: Meaning and judgement. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  43. Marton, F. (1994). Phenomenography. In T. Husén & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of education (2nd ed., Vol. 8, pp. 4424–4429). Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  44. Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2006). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  45. Mulcahy, D. (2007). (Re)working relations of strategy and spatiality in education. Studies in Continuing Education, 29(2), 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Osberg, D., & Biesta, G. (2007). Beyond presence: Epistemological and pedagogical implications of “strong” “emergence”. Interchange, 38(1), 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Reckwitz, A. (2002). Towards a theory of social practices: A development in culturalist theorizing. European Journal of Social Theory, 5(2), 243–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Scanlon, L. (Ed.). (2011). Becoming a professional. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  49. Schatzki, T. R. (1997, September). Practices and actions: A Wittgensteinian critique of Bourdieu and Giddens. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 27(3), 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schatzki, T. R. (2001). Practice theory. In T. R. Schatzki, K. Knorr-Cetina, & E. von Savigny (Eds.), The practice turn in contemporary theory (pp. 1–14). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Schatzki, T. R. (2002). The site of the social: A philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park: The Pennsylvania University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Schatzki, T R. (2011, July 11). The edge of change. Seminar presented at the Centre for Research in Learning and Change, University of Technology, Sydney. www.rilc.uts.edu.au
  53. Schatzki, T. R., Knorr-Cetina, K., & von Savigny, E. (Eds.). (2001). The practice turn in contemporary theory. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Shotter, J. (1996). Living in a Wittgensteinian world: Beyond theory to a poetics of practices. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 26(3), 293–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smeyers, P., & Burbules, N. (2006). Education as initiation into practices. Educational Theory, 56(4), 439–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thévenot, L. (2001). Pragmatic regimes governing the engagement with the world. In T. R. Schatzki, K. Knorr-Cetina, & E. von Savigny (Eds.), The practice turn in contemporary theory (pp. 56–73). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  57. Todd, S. (1997). Learning desire: Perspectives on pedagogy, culture and the unsaid. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. Tsoukas, H. (2008). Complex knowledge: Studies in organizational epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Usher, R., & Edwards, R. (1994). Postmodernism and education. London/New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Usher, R., & Edwards, R. (2007). Lifelong learning – Signs, discourses, practices. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  61. van Manen, M. (1999). The practice of practice. In M. Lange, J. Olson, H. Hansen, & W. Bünder (Eds.), Changing schools/changing practices: Perspectives on educational reform and teacher professionalism. Louvain: Garant.Google Scholar
  62. Vandermensbrugghe, J. (2004). The unbearable vagueness of critical thinking in the context of the Anglo-Saxonisation of education. International Education Journal, 5(3), 417–422.Google Scholar
  63. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Arts & Social SciencesUniversity of Technology, SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations