Advertisement

Trends and Trade-offs – Inland Vegetated Dune

  • J. Patrick Doody
Chapter
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 4)

Abstract

In the absence of human intervention and with a reasonable sediment supply, the typical communities will include all the successional vegetation described in  Chap. 1, from pioneer dunes to scrub and woodland. However, most coastal dunes have had some form of human interference in the past. The introduction of domesticated stock more than 5,000 years ago helped modify dune vegetation in some parts of the world (Sect. 2.4.2). This chapter is concerned with the ‘mechanisms for change’ on these vegetated sand dunes. The way the stands of vegetation react in terms of species composition, height and structure particularly to the effects of different grazing regimes, is a key part of the discussion.

A ‘State Evaluation Model’, mostly based on European examples, provides a summary of the possible pathways to restoring degraded vegetation. This model relates to the surface of dunes inland from the beach/dune interface. In addition to grazing it also discusses the stabilisation of areas historically laid bare by sand drift (Sect. 2.2.) through afforestation (Sect. 2.3.2). It takes into account the extent that native woodland survives and the value of allowing scrub and secondary woodland to develop. The trends associated with recreational activities and water relationships complete the analysis.

Keywords

Sand Dune Grazing Pressure Bare Sand Dune Slack Dune Vegetation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Angus S, Elliott MM (1992) Erosion in Scottish machair with particular reference to the Outer Hebrides. In: Carter RWG, Curtis TGF, Sheehy-Skeffington MJ (eds) Coastal dunes: geomorphology, ecology and management for conservation. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 93–112Google Scholar
  2. Baeyens G, Martinez ML (2004) Dune animals: from exploitation to protection. In: Martinez ML, Psuty NP (eds) Coastal dunes, ecology and conservation, vol 171, Ecological studies. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 279–296Google Scholar
  3. Bailey SD, Bristow CS (2004) Migration of parabolic dunes at Aberffraw, Anglesey, north Wales. Geomorphology 59(1–4):165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakker TWM (1990) The geohydrology of coastal dunes. In: Bakker TW, Jungerius PD, Klijn JA (eds) Dunes of the European coasts, vol 18, Catena supplement. Catena, Cremlingen, pp 109–119Google Scholar
  5. Beebee TJC (1977) Environmental change as a cause of natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) declines in Britain. Biol Conserv 11(2):87–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beebee TJC, Flower RJ, Stevenson AC, Patrick ST, Appleby PG, Fletcher C, Marsh C, Natkanski J, Rippey B, Battarbe RW (1990) Decline of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain: palaeoecological, documentary and experimental evidence for breeding site acidification. Biol Conserv 53(1):1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binggeli P (1994) Historical impact of rabbits on Irish vegetation. In: Proceedings of the Irish Botanists’, Meeting. University of Ulster, Coleraine, pp 5–6Google Scholar
  8. Clarke D (1980) The groundwater balance of a coastal dune system: a study of the water table conditions in Ainsdale Sand Dunes National Nature Reserve. Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, University of LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  9. Davy AJ, Grootjans AP, Hiscock K, Peterson J (2006) Development of eco-hydrological guidelines for dune habitats – phase 1. English Nature Research reports no 696, Peterborough. Source: http://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/publication/61018. Accessed 15 Aug 2012
  10. Davy AJ, Hiscock KM, Jones MLM, Low R, Robins NS, Stratford C (2010) Protecting the plant communities and rare species of dune wetland systems: ecohydrological guidelines for wet dune habitats. Phase 2. Bristol, UK, Environment agency, p 113. Source: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/9926/. Accessed 30 Dec 2011
  11. Domburg P, Erisman JW, de Haan BJ, de Vries W, Kros J, Sanders K (2005) The Dutch nitrogen cascade in the European perspective. Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, p 109. Source: http://www.ecn.nl/docs/library/report/2005/c05007.pdf. Accessed 30 Dec 2011
  12. Doody JP (1989) Management for nature conservation. In: Gimmingham CH, Ritchie W, Willetts BB, Willis AJ (eds) Coastal sand dunes, vol 96B, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Royal Society of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, pp 247–265Google Scholar
  13. Doody JP (2003) Coastal habitat restoration, towards good practice, Introductory report. Part of the LIFE funded ‘Living with the Sea Project’ Contract no. FST20-48-006 01/0384, Natural England. Source: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20091011154212/http://www.eclife.naturalengland.org.uk/project_details/good_practice_guide/habitatcrr/ENRestore/AccompanyingReport.pdf. Accessed 31 Dec 2011. The good practice guide is available in the United Kingdom National Archive http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20091011154212/http://www.eclife.naturalengland.org.uk/project_details/default.asp
  14. Duffey E (1968) An ecological analysis of the spider fauna of sand dunes. J Anim Ecol 37:641–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fenner F, Fantini B (1999) Biological control of vertebrate pests: the history of myxomatosis, an experiment in evolution. CABI Publishing/CAB International, Wallingford, 352 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Frame J (2000) Improved grassland management. Farming Press/Miller Freeman, Tonbridge, 338 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Garcia Nova F (1997) The ecosystems of Doñana National Park. In: Garcia Nova F, Crawford RMM, Diáz Barradas MC (eds) The ecology and conservation of European dunes. Universidat de Savilla, Sevilla, pp 87–116Google Scholar
  18. Gilbert O (2004) Lichens, Naturally Scottish. Scottish Natural Heritage, Battleby, PerthGoogle Scholar
  19. Grootjans AP, Geelen HWT, Jansen AJM, Lammerts EJ (2002) Restoration of coastal dune slacks in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 478(1–3):181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill MO, Wallace HL (1989) Vegetation and environment in afforested sand dunes at Newborough, Anglesey. Forestry 62(3):249–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hodgkin SE (1984) Scrub encroachment and its effects on soil fertility on Newborough Warren, Anglesey, Wales. Biol Conserv 29(2):99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Houston JA (2008) Management of Natura 2000 habitats. 2190 Humid dune slacks. European Commission. Source: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/habitats/pdf/2190_Humid_dune_slacks.pdf. Accessed 30 Dec 2011
  23. Howe MA, Knight GT, Clee C (2010) The importance of coastal sand dunes for terrestrial invertebrates in Wales and the UK, with particular reference to aculeate Hymenoptera (bees, wasps & ants). J Coast Conserv 14(2):91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hylgaard T, Liddle MJ (1981) The effect of human trampling on a sand dune ecosystem dominated by Empetrum nigrum. J Appl Ecol 18(2):559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Isermann M, Koehler H, Mühl M (2010) Interactive effects of rabbit grazing and environmental factors on plant species-richness on dunes of Norderney. J Coast Conserv 14(2):103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jones MLM, Wallace HL, Norris D, Brittain SA, Haria S, Jones RE, Rhind PM, Reynolds BR, Emmett BA (2004) Changes in vegetation and soil characteristics in coastal sand dunes along a gradient of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Plant Biol 6(5):598–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jones MLM, Sowerby A, Williams DL, Jones RE (2008) Factors controlling soil development in sand dunes: evidence from a coastal dune soil chronosequence. Plant Soil 307(1–2):219–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ketner-Oostra R (2006) Lichen-rich coastal and inland sand dunes (Corynephorion) in the Netherlands: vegetation dynamic and nature management. Ph. D. thesis, Wageningen University and Research CentreGoogle Scholar
  29. Ketner-Oostra R, Sýkora KV (2004) Decline of lichen-diversity in calcium-poor coastal dune vegetation since the 1970s, related to grass and moss encroachment. Phytocoenologia 34:521–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kirby P (1992) Habitat management for invertebrates: a practical handbook. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  31. Kooijman AM, van der Meulen F (1996) Grazing as a control against ‘grass-encroachment’ in dry dune grasslands in the Netherlands. Landsc Urban Plan 34(3–4):323–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kutiel P, Peled Y, Geffen E (2000) The effect of removing shrub cover on annual plants and small mammals in a coastal sand dune ecosystem. Biol Conserv 94(2):235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liddle MJ (1975) A selective review of the ecological effects of human trampling on natural ecosystems. Biol Conserv 7:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liddle MJ (1997) Recreation ecology: the ecological impact of outdoor recreation and ecotourism. Chapman and Hall, London, 641 ppGoogle Scholar
  35. Liddle MJ, Grieg-Smith P (1975) A survey of tracks and paths in a sand dune ecosystem. II. Vegetation. J Appl Ecol 12(3):909–930CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maun MA (2009) The biology of coastal sand dunes. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 265 ppGoogle Scholar
  37. McDonnell MJ (1981) Trampling effects on coastal dune vegetation in the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts, USA. Biol Conserv 21(4):289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Muñoz-Reinoso JC (2001) Vegetation changes and groundwater abstraction in SW Doñana, Spain. J Hydrol 242(3–4):197–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Olšauskas AM (1995) Influence of recreation on flora stability on the Lithuanian coastal dunes. In: Healy MG, Doody JP (eds) Direction in European coastal management. Samara Publishing, Cardigan, pp 103–105Google Scholar
  40. Packham JR, Willis AJ (1997) Ecology of dunes, salt marsh and shingle. Chapman and Hall, London, p 335Google Scholar
  41. Provoost S, Van Landuyt W (2001) The flora of Flemish coastal dunes (Belgium) in a changing landscape. In: Houston JA, Edmondson SE, Rooney PJ (eds) Coastal dune management, shared experience of European conservation practice. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool, pp 381–401Google Scholar
  42. Provoost S, Jones LML, Edmondson SE (2011) Changes in landscape and vegetation of coastal dunes in northwest Europe: a review. J Coast Conserv 15(1):207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pye K, Tsoar H (1990) Aeolian sand and sand dunes. Unwin Hyman, London, 396 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ranwell DS (1972) Ecology of salt marshes and sand dunes. Chapman and Hall, London, 258 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Ranwell DS, Boar R (1986) Coast dune management guide. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, HMSO, London, 105 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Remke E (2009) Impact of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on lichen-rich, coastal dune grasslands. Ph. D. thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen. Source: http://www.waddenacademie.knaw.nl/fileadmin/inhoud/pdf/06-wadweten/Proefschriften/Thesis_Eva_Remke_2009_EBOOK_version_01.pdf#page=99. Accessed 17 Nov 2011
  47. Remke E, Brouwer E, Kooijman A, Blindow I, Esselink H, Roelofs JGM (2009) Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea. Environ Pollut 157(3):792–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ritchie W, Mather AS (1984) The beaches of Scotland. Commissioned by the Countryside Commission for Scotland 1984. Reprinted 2005 by Scottish Natural Heritage as Commissioned report no 109Google Scholar
  49. Stratford CJ, Ratcliffe J, Hughes A, Roberts J, Robins N (2007) Complex interaction between shallow groundwater and changing woodland, surface water, grazing and other influences in partly wooded duneland in Anglesey, Wales. In: Proceedings of the CDXXXV congress international association of hydrogeologists: groundwater and ecosystems. International Association of Hydrogeologists, pp 1–10. Source: http://www.thedotenvironment.com/DOCS/Complex%20Interactions%20at%20Newborough%20Warren%20Stratford%20et%20al.pdf. Accessed 25 Nov 10
  50. Thomas AS (1960) Changes in vegetation since the advent of myxomatosis. J Ecol 48(2):287–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thomas AS (1963) Further changes in vegetation since the advent of myxomatosis. J Ecol 51(1):151–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Thompson HV, Worden AN (1956) The rabbit. Collins New Naturalist, London, 240 ppGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Dam PJEM (2001) Status loss due to ecological success. Landscape change and the spread of the rabbit. Innov:Eur J Soc Sci 14(2):157–170Google Scholar
  54. van der Maarel E, Boot R, van Dorp R, Rijntjes J (1985) Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands; a comparison of the vegetation in 1959 and 1980. Plant Ecol 58(3):137–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. van Dijk HWJ, Grootjans AP (1993) Wet dune slacks: decline and new opportunities. Hydrobiologia 265:281–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Dorp D, Boot R, van der Maarel E (1985) Vegetation succession on the dunes near Oostvoorne, The Netherlands, since 1934, interpreted from air photographs and vegetation maps. Vegetatio 58(3):123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. van Tooren B, Bruin K (2004) Bryophytes of the sand dunes of the West Frisian Islands. Lindbergia 29(1):51–63Google Scholar
  58. Veer MAC (1997) Nitrogen availability in relation to vegetation changes resulting from grass encroachment in Dutch dry dunes. J Coast Conserv 3(1):41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Veer MAC, Kooijman AM (1997) Effects of grass-encroachment on vegetation and soil in Dutch dry dune grasslands. Plant Soil 192:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilkie ML (2002) From dune to forest: biological diversity in plantations established to control drifting sand. Unasylva, Special issue 209, Forest Biological Diversity, 53:64–69Google Scholar
  61. Willis AJ (1963) Braunton Burrows: the effects on the vegetation of the addition of mineral nutrients to the dune soils. J Ecol 51:353–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Willis AJ, Yem EW (1961) Braunton Burrows: mineral nutrient status of the dune soils. J Ecol 49:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zunzunegui M, Diaz Barradas MC, Garcia Novo F (1998) Vegetation fluctuation in Mediterranean dune ponds in relation to rainfall variation and water extraction. Appl Veg Sci 1(1):151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Patrick Doody
    • 1
  1. 1.National Coastal ConsultantsBrampton, HuntingdonUK

Personalised recommendations