Physical States and Values – Beach/Foredune

  • J. Patrick Doody
Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 4)


Sand dunes develop through geomorphological processes that rely on deposition of sediment on a beach. Waves, then wind drive the particles onto the upper shore. In temperate regions, vegetation plays an important part in the accretion of sediment and the development of strandline and foredune vegetation ( Chap. 1). Human actions interfere with these processes causing a change to the system ( Chap. 2). This chapter describes the physical characteristics of coastal sand dunes (Sect. 1.2) and vegetation along a continuum from the beach to the foredune (Sects. 1.3.1 and 1.3.2 respectively). It considers the forces that drive the system and the way these change the state and the ecosystem services (values) each provides.


Ecosystem Service Sand Dune Sandy Beach Dune Ridge Sandwich Tern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Arens SM, Wiersma J (1994) The Dutch foredunes: inventory and classification. J Coast Res 10(1):189–202Google Scholar
  2. Barnes FA, King AM (1953) The storm floods of 1 February 1953 II the Lincolnshire coastline and the 1953 storm flood. Geography 38:141–160Google Scholar
  3. Bird ECF (1985) Coastline changes: a global review. Wiley, Chichester, 219 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Bird ECF (1996) Beach management. Wiley, Chichester, 281 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. Bouchard SS, Bjorndal KA (2000) Sea turtles as biological transporters of nutrients and energy from marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology 81(8):2305–2313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown AF, Atkinson PW (1996) Habitat associations of coastal wintering passerines. Bird Study 43/ 2:188–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter RWG (1989) Coastal environments. An introduction to the physical, ecological and cultural systems of coastlines. Academic, London, 617 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Chapman VJ (1934) The ecology of Scolt Head Island. In: Steers JA (ed) Scolt Head Island. W. Heffer and Sons Ltd., Cambridge, pp 77–145Google Scholar
  9. Costanzal R et al (1997) The value of the World’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387(15):253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox ML (2007) Atlas of the seed and leaf beetles of Britain and Ireland. Pisces Publications, Newbury, 344 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Davy AJ, Scott R, Cordazzo CV (2006) Biological flora of the British Isles: Cakile maritima Scop. J Ecol 94(3):695–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deidun A, Saliba S, Schembri PJ (2009) Considerations on the ecological role of wrack accumulation on sandy beaches in the Maltese islands and recommendations for their conservation management. J Coast Res, Special Issue 56, In: Proceedings of the 10th international coastal symposium, Lisbon, Portugal, pp 410–414Google Scholar
  13. Dugan JE, Hubbard DM, McCrary MD, Pierson MO (2003) The response of macrofauna communities and shorebirds to macrophyte wrack subsidies on exposed sandy beaches of southern California. Estuar, Coast Shelf Sci 58S:25–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Farber SC, Costanza R, Wilson MA (2002) Economic and ecological concepts for valuing ecosystem services. Ecol Econ 41:375–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox WT, Davis RA (1978) Seasonal variation in beach erosion and sedimentation on the Oregon coast. Geol Soc Am, Bull 89(10):1541–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grove AT, Rackham O (2001) The nature of the Mediterranean Europe: an ecological history. Yale University Press, New Haven/London, 384 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Hough R (1960) Book of the racing Campbells. Stanley Paul, London, 127 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Hubbard DM, Dugan JE (2003) Shorebird use of an exposed sandy beach in southern California. Estuar, Coast Shelf Sci 58(1):41–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Karavas N, Georghiou K, Arianoutsou M, Dimopoulos D (2005) Vegetation and sand charac­teristics influencing nesting activity of Caretta caretta on Sekania beach. Biol Conserv 121:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lennon G, Bush DM, Neal WJ, Pilkey OH, Bullock J (1996) Living with the South Carolina coast. Duke University Press, Durham, 264 ppGoogle Scholar
  21. Mascarenhas A, Jayakumar S (2008) An environmental perspective of the post-tsunami scenario along the coast of Tamil Nadu, India: role of sand dunes and forests. J Environ Manage 89(1):24–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McLachlan A (1991) Ecology of coastal dune fauna. J Arid Environ 21:229–243Google Scholar
  23. McLachlan A, Brown AC (2006) The ecology of sandy shores, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, 373 ppGoogle Scholar
  24. McLachlan A, Dugan JE, Defeo O, Ansell AD, Hubbard DM, Jaramillo E, Penchaszadeh PE (1996) Beach clam fisheries. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 34:163–232Google Scholar
  25. Psuty NP (2004) The coastal foredune: a morphological basis for regional coastal dune development. In: Psuty NP, Martínez M (eds) Coastal dunes: ecology and conservation. Springer, Berlin, pp 11–27Google Scholar
  26. Ranwell DS (1972) Ecology of salt marshes and sand dunes. Chapman and Hall, London, 258 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Ruz MH, Meur-Ferec C (2004) Influence of high water levels on aeolian sand transport: upper beach/dune evolution on a macrotidal coast, Wissant Bay, northern France. Geomorphology 60(1–2):73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human wellbeing, a synthesis. United Nations. Source: Accessed 16 Nov 2011
  29. Welch RC (1989) Invertebrates of Scottish sand dunes. Proc R Soc Edinb 96B:267–287Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Patrick Doody
    • 1
  1. 1.National Coastal ConsultantsBrampton, HuntingdonUK

Personalised recommendations