Chromatin Organization, Epigenetics and Differentiation: An Evolutionary Perspective
Genome packaging is a universal phenomenon from prokaryotes to higher mammals. Genomic constituents and forces have however, travelled a long evolutionary route. Both DNA and protein elements constitute the genome and also aid in its dynamicity. With the evolution of organisms, these have experienced several structural and functional changes. These evolutionary changes were made to meet the challenging scenario of evolving organisms. This review discusses in detail the evolutionary perspective and functionality gain in the phenomena of genome organization and epigenetics.
KeywordsNucleosome Position Histone Variant Linker Histone Histone Chaperone Nucleosome Assembly
We thank Department of Biotechnology, Government of India (for Programme Support Grant on Chromatin and Disease, Grant No. Grant/DBT/CSH/GIA/1957/2011-12) and JNCASR for financial assistance. TKK is a recipient of the Sir J.C. Bose Fellowship (Department of Science and Technology, Government of India). SK, PS and AS are research fellows of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Government of India.
- Drlica K, Bendich AJ (2000) Chromosome, bacterial. In: Lederberg J (ed) Encylcopedia of microbiology. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- Grant PA, Duggan L, Côté J, Roberts SM, Brownell JE, Candau R, Ohba R, Owen-Hughes T, Allis CD, Winston F, Berger SL, Workman JL (1997) Yeast Gcn5 functions in two multisubunit complexes to acetylate nucleosomal histones: characterization of an Ada complex and the SAGA (Spt/Ada) complex. Genes Dev 11:1640–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hogan CJ, Aligianni S, Durand-Dubief M, Persson J, Will WR, Webster J, Wheeler L, Mathews CK, Elderkin S, Oxley D, Ekwall K, Varga-Weisz PD (2010) Fission yeast Iec1-ino80-mediated nucleosome eviction regulates nucleotide and phosphate metabolism. Mol Cell Biol 30:657–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ikura T, Tashiro S, Kakino A, Shima H, Jacob N, Amunugama R, Yoder K, Izumi S, Kuraoka I, Tanaka K, Kimura H, Ikura M, Nishikubo S, Ito T, Muto A, Miyagawa K, Takeda S, Fishel R, Igarashi K, Kamiya K (2007) DNA damage-dependent acetylation and ubiquitination of H2AX enhances chromatin dynamics. Mol Cell Biol 27:7028–7040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Johnson RC, Johnson LM, Schmidt JW, Gardner JF (2005) Major nucleoid proteins in the structure and function of the Escherichia coli chromosome. In: Patrick Higgins N (ed) The bacterial chromosome. ACM Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Kellenberger E, Arnold-Schulz-Gahrnen B (1992) Chromatins of low protein content: special features of their compaction and condensation. FEMS Microbiol Lett 100:361–370Google Scholar
- Shechter D, Nicklay JJ, Chitta RK, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Allis CD (2009) Analysis of histones in Xenopus laevis. I. A distinct index of enriched variants and modifications exists in each cell type and is remodeled during developmental transitions. J Biol Chem 284:1064–1074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Voo KS, Carlone DL, Jacobsen BM, Flodin A, Skalnik DG (2000) Cloning of a mammalian transcriptional activator that binds unmethylated CpG motifs and shares a CXXC domain with DNA methyltransferase, human trithorax, and methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1. Mol Cell Biol 20:2108–2121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wolffe A (1992) Chromatin: structure and function. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar