Naïve Meinongianism

  • Francesco Berto
Part of the Synthese Library book series (SYLI, volume 356)


The previous Chapters may have shown that Meinongianism is worth the further investigation to be pursued from now on. I have to warn, though, that this Chapter is partly a false start. The theory described here can be labeled “naïve Meinongianism” and, as we shall see, it ends up suffering from many a problem (e.g., it is inconsistent). We shall also see, however, that this naïve theory has so promising applications that trying to recover (some of) the insights it is based on is a worthy exercise.


Fictional Character Receive View Impossible Object Fictional Object Nonexistent Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Berto F. [2006], Teorie dell’assurdo. I rivali del Principio di Non-Contraddizione, Carocci, Rome.Google Scholar
  2. Berto F. [2007], How to Sell a Contradiction. The Logic and Metaphysics of Inconsistency, College Publications, London.Google Scholar
  3. Berto F. [2011], “Modal Meinongianism and Fiction: The Best of Three Worlds”, Philosophical Studies, 153, pp. 313–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berto F., Priest G. [2008], “Dialetheism”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, CSLI, Stanford, Ca., Scholar
  5. Bigelow J. [1996], “Presentism and Properties”, Philosophical Perspectives, 10, pp. 35–42.Google Scholar
  6. Bremer M. [2005], An Introduction to Paraconsistent Logics, Peter Lang, Frankfurt a.M.Google Scholar
  7. Carrara M. [2001], Impegno ontologico e criteri d’identità. Un’analisi, CLEUP, Padua.Google Scholar
  8. Chisholm R. [1972], “Beyond Being and Non-Being”, Philosophical Studies, 24, pp. 245–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chisholm R. [1977], “Thought and Its Reference”, American Philosophical Quarterly, 14, pp. 167–72.Google Scholar
  10. Currie G. [1990], The Nature of Fiction, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Fine K. [1982], “The Problem of Non-Existents, I: Internalism”, Topoi, 1, pp. 97–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fitting M, Mendelsohn R.L. [1998], First-Order Modal Logic, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  13. Grossmann R. [1974], Meinong. The Arguments of Philosophers, Routledge, London and New York.Google Scholar
  14. Hinchliff M. [2000], “A Defense of Presentism in a Relativistic Setting”, Philosophy of Science Suppl., 67, 575–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Inwagen P. van [1977], “Creatures of Fiction”, American Philosophical Quarterly, 14, pp. 299–308.Google Scholar
  16. Inwagen P. van [2003], “Existence, Ontological Commitment ,and Fictional Entities”, in Loux and Zimmermann [2003] (eds.), Metaphysics, Oxford U.P., Oxford, pp. 131–57.Google Scholar
  17. Künne W. [1990], “Perception, Fiction, and Elliptical Speech”, in Jacobi and Pape [1990] (eds.), Thinking and the Structure of the World, De Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 259–67.Google Scholar
  18. Lambert K. [1983], Meinong and the Principle of Independence. Its Place in Meinong’s Theory of Objects and its Significance in Contemporary Philosophical Logic, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge.Google Scholar
  19. Lewis D.K. [1978], “Truth in Fiction”, American Philosophical Quarterly, 15, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  20. Lewis D.K. [2004], “Tensed Quantifiers”, in Zimmerman [2004] (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, vol. I, Oxford U.P., Oxford, pp. 3–14.Google Scholar
  21. Ludlow, P. [1999], Semantics, Tense, and Time: An Essay in the Metaphysics of Natural Language, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge.Google Scholar
  22. Markosian, N. [2004], “A Defense of Presentism”, in Zimmerman [2004] (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics, vol. I, Oxford U.P., Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. McGinn C. [2000], Logical Properties. Identity, Existence, Predication, Necessity, Truth, Oxford U.P., Oxford.Google Scholar
  24. Meinong A. [1904], “Über Gegenstandstheorie”, in Meinong [1904] (ed.), Untersuchungen zur Gegenstandstheorie und Psychologie, J.A. Barth, Leipzig, pp. 1–51, then in Haller and Kindinger [1972] (eds.), Alexius Meinong Gesamtausgabe vol. II, Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz, pp. 481–535, tr. “The Theory of Objects”, in Chisholm [1960] (ed.), Realism and the Background of Phenomenology, The Free press-Collier-Macmillan, New York & London, pp. 76–117.Google Scholar
  25. Parsons T. [1979a], “Referring to Nonexistent Objects”, Theory and Decision, 11, pp. 95–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parsons T. [1980], Nonexistent Objects, Yale U.P., New Haven, Conn.Google Scholar
  27. Pelletier J. [2003], “Vergil and Dido”, Dialectica, 57, pp. 191–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Priest G. [2005], Towards non-Being. The Logic and Metaphysics of Intentionality, Oxford U.P., Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Priest G. [2010], “Creating Nonexistents: Some Initial Thoughts”, unpublished MS.Google Scholar
  30. Prior A.N. [1968], Papers on Tense and Time, Clarendon, Oxford.Google Scholar
  31. Proudfoot D. [2006], “Possible Worlds Semantics and Fiction”, Journal of Philosophical Logic, 35, pp. 9–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Quine W.V.O. [1953], “On What There Is”, in From a Logical Point of View, Harvard U.P., Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  33. Reicher M.E. [2010], “Nonexistent Objects”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, CSLI, Stanford, Ca., Scholar
  34. Russell B. [1905a], “Review of A. Meinong, Untersuchungen zur Gegenstandtheorie und Psychologie”, Mind, 14, pp. 530–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Russell B. [1905b], “On Denoting”, Mind, 14, pp. 479–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Russell B. [1907], “Review of A. Meinong, Über die Stellung der Gegenstandstheorie im System der Wissenschaften”, Mind, 16, pp. 436–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sainsbury M. [2010], Fiction and Fictionalism, Routledge, London & New York.Google Scholar
  38. Salmon N. [1998], “Nonexistence”, Noûs, 32, pp. 277–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schiffer S. [1996], “Language-Created Language-Independent Entities”, Philosophical Topics, 24, pp. 149–67.Google Scholar
  40. Searle J. [1975], “The Logical Status of Fictional Discourse”, New Literary History, 6, pp. 319–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sider T. [1999a], “Presentism and Ontological Commitment”, Journal of Philosophy, 96, pp. 325–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thomasson A. [1999], Fiction and Metaphysics, Cambridge U.P., Cambridge.Google Scholar
  43. Thomasson A. [2003], “Speaking of Fictional Characters”, Dialectica, 57, 207–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Voltolini A. [2006], How Ficta Follow Fiction. A Syncretistic Account of Fictional Entities, Springer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  45. Walton K. [1991], “Précis of Mimesis as Make-Believe”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 51, pp. 379–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walton K. [2003], “Restricted Quantification, Negative Existentials, and Fiction”, Dialectica, 57, pp. 239–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weber Z. [2010], “Transfinite Numbers in Paraconsistent Set Theory”, Review of Symbolic Logic, 3, pp. 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Williamson T. [1990a], Identity and Discrimination, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Zalta E. [1983], Abstract Objects: an Introduction to Axiomatic Metaphysics, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  50. Zalta E. [1988], Intensional Logic and the Metaphysics of Intentionality, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  51. Zimmerman D.W. [1998], “Temporary Intrinsics and Presentism”, in van Inwagen and Zimmerman [1998] (eds.), Metaphysics: the Big Questions, Blackwell, Malden, MA, pp. 206–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Berto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Philosophy and Northern Institute of PhilosophyUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations