Origin(s) of Design in Nature

Volume 23 of the series Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology pp 559-572


Not All Designs Are Created Equal

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To explore the origin of design, one must understand that design is not an exact term but rather is a family of terms that cannot reduce to a generalized term due to the internal paradoxes of this family of terms. Some of the design terms are shown in natural systems. An artificial life simulation will be used to describe the many design processes that exist in the simulated world and also hold true in the natural world. An applied proof of the curious absence of “intelligent design” in nature and in human endeavors is offered concluding with an exploration of the origins of these forms of design.