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Chelate Assisted Phytoextraction Using Oilseed Brassicas

Chapter
Part of the Environmental Pollution book series (EPOL, volume 21)

Abstract

Members of the family Brassicaceae have a special ability to absorb such large amounts of metals as are often beyond the tolerance range of other plants. Among the oilseed Brassicas, work on phytoextraction has been centered on Brassica juncea, a well known metal hyperaccumulating species. The oilseed Brassicas mainly include B. carinata (Ethiopian mustard), B. elongata (elongated mustard), B. juncea (Indian mustard), B. napus (oilseed rape/canola), B. narinosa (broad-beaked mustard), B. nigra (black mustard) and B. rapa (turnip mustard). Although, there has been a considerable research on the phytoextraction abilities of these plants from heavy metal contaminated soil, lesser work has been done with reference to chelate-assisted phytoextraction. Research on chelate assisted phytoextraction has mainly been centred on B. juncea and B. napus on account of a better performance of these plants in metal uptake. Chelating agents like EDTA are capable of improving translocation of metals from roots to shoots and then into leaves. Higher bioaccumulation factors have been observed in stems and leaves of plants under the influence of chelating agents. As many of these oilseed crops yield edible oil, the high heavy metal content translocated to the oil bearing seeds is important. Research shows evidence that the seeds contain a considerable amount of hazardous toxic metals if grown on metal contaminated sites. However, the translocation into seeds is checked under lower doses of chelating agents like EDTA. Among the heavy metals, most of the research work on chelate assisted phytoextraction has been on Pb contaminated soil and application of chelating agents like EDTA and EDDS have shown significantly higher metal uptake in plants. Work has also been done on heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Cr and Zn. Chelate assisted phytoextraction has two main drawbacks. Firstly, the phytotoxic effect of the chelate itself with a potentially long residence time in soil and secondly, the leaching hazard of biolabile heavy metals to cause ground water pollution. Several measures have been suggested to overcome these hazards.

Keywords

Oilseed Brassicas Phytoextraction Chelating agents B. juncea 

Abbreviations

CDTA

trans-1,2 Cyclohexylene dinitrilo tetraacetic acid

DTPA

Diethylene triamino pentaacetic acid

EDDS

S,S-ethylene diamine disuccinic acid

EDTA

Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

EDTA

Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid

EGTA

Ethylene diaminesuccinic acid

GEDTA

Bis (2-aminoethyl) ethyleneglycol tetraacetic acid

HEDTA

Hydroxylethylene diamine tetraacetic acid

LMWOA

Low molecular weight organic acids

NTA

Nitrilotriacetic acid

PGPR

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of the PunjabLahorePakistan

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