Advertisement

Herding on High Grounds: Diversity and Typology of Pastoral Systems in the Eastern Hindukush (Chitral, Northwest Pakistan)

  • Marcus NüsserEmail author
  • Arnd Holdschlag
  • Fazlur-Rahman
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER)

Abstract

This chapter analyses pastoral migration patterns as strategies for utilising the grazing resources at the marginal belts of human habitation in Chitral, an area located in the eastern Hindukush of northern Pakistan. Beyond the common features of combined mountain agriculture, pastoral utilisation strategies vary between different tributary valleys in the region. Based on six case studies from northern, eastern and southern Chitral, similarities and differences between pastoral resource utilisation are presented and analysed here. Although the influence of heterogeneous environmental settings needs to be considered, differences in resource utilisation mainly stem from distinct settlement processes and territorial rights of access and utilisation, which in turn evolved from ethnic and social segregation between two dominant actor groups: the Kho mountain farmers and formerly nomadic Gujur. Hence, a better understanding of the complexity, diversity and dynamics involved in pastoral management systems must be based on a historically informed study of these spatial and social patterns.

Keywords

Human ecology Pastoralism Diversity Chitral Pakistan 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research has been substantially funded by the German Research Council (DFG) within the framework of the Pakistan-German joint research programme ‘Culture Area Karakorum’ (CAK). We thank Adam Knowles for proofreading.

References

  1. Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (2000) An assessment of socio-economic trends and impact in northern Pakistan (1991–1997). AKRSP, GilgitGoogle Scholar
  2. Barth F (1956) Indus and Swat Kohistan. An ethnographic survey. Studies honouring the Centennial of Universitetets Etnografiske Museum, Oslo 1857–1957, 2. Forenede Trykkerierm, OsloGoogle Scholar
  3. Beg GA (2011) Current status of pastoral systems in Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral. In: Kreutzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Zhaohui L, Richter J (eds) Pastoralism and rangeland management in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 131–146Google Scholar
  4. Biddulph J (1880) Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh. The Superintendent of Government Printing, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  5. Cacopardo AM, Cacopardo AS (2001) Gates of Peristan. History, religion and society in the Hindu Kush. Reports and Memoirs, Series Minor, Centro Scavi e Ricerche Archeologiche 5. Istituto Italiano per l’Africa e l’Oriente, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Clemens J, Nüsser M (2008) Animal husbandry and utilization of alpine pastures in the Nanga Parbat region of northern Pakistan. Comparison of Raikot and Rupal Valleys. In: Israr-ud-Din (ed) Proceedings of the third international Hindu Kush cultural conference. Oxford University Press, Karachi, pp 71–81Google Scholar
  7. Edelberg L, Jones S (1979) Nuristan. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, GrazGoogle Scholar
  8. Eggert P (1990) Die frühere Sozialordnung Moolkhos und Turkhos (Chitral), Beiträge zur Südasienforschung 134. Steiner, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  9. Ehlers E, Kreutzmann H (2000) High mountain ecology and economy. Potential and constraints. In: Ehlers E, Kreutzmann H (eds) High mountain pastoralism in northern Pakistan, Erdkundliches Wissen 132. Steiner, Stuttgart, pp 9–36Google Scholar
  10. Faizi I (1999) Indigenous resource management in Chitral. IUCN-CCS Study. IUCN Pakistan, ChitralGoogle Scholar
  11. Fautz B (1963) Sozialstruktur und Bodennutzung in der Kulturlandschaft des Swat (Nordwesthimalaya), Gießener Geographische Schriften 3. Schmitz, GießenGoogle Scholar
  12. Fazlur-Rahman (2007) Persistence and transformation in the eastern Hindu Kush. A study of resource management systems in Mehlp Valley, Chitral, North Pakistan, Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen 118. Asgard, Sankt AugustinGoogle Scholar
  13. Forsyth T (1998) Mountain myths revisited. Integrating natural and social environmental science. Mt Res Dev 18:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. General Staff India (1928) Military report and gazetteer on Chitral. Government of India Press, CalcuttaGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghulam Murtaza M (ed) (1962) Nai Tarikh-i Chitral. [New History of Chitral] [Urdu]. Authors: Mohammad Ghufran M et al. Public Art Press, Peshawar (English translation, typescript)Google Scholar
  16. Government of N.W.F.P. (GoNWFP) (1997) NWFP development statistics 1997. Bureau of Statistics, Planning, Environment and Development Department, PeshawarGoogle Scholar
  17. Government of Pakistan (GoP) (1998) NWFP Livestock Census 1996, vol. II, part I. Agricultural Census Organization Statistics Division, LahoreGoogle Scholar
  18. Government of Pakistan (GoP) (1999) 1998 district census report of Chitral, census publication 20. Population Census Organization, IslamabadGoogle Scholar
  19. Government of Pakistan (GoP) (2006) NWFP livestock census 2006. Agricultural Census Organization Statistics Division, LahoreGoogle Scholar
  20. Haserodt K (1989) Chitral (Pakistanischer Hindukusch). Strukturen, Wandel und Probleme eines Lebensraumes zwischen Gletschern und Wüste. In: Haserodt K (ed) Hochgebirgsräume Nordpakistans im Hindukusch, Karakorum und Westhimalaya, Beiträge und Materialien zur Regionalen Geographie 2. TU Berlin, Berlin, pp 43–180Google Scholar
  21. Holdschlag A (2011) Siedlungsgemeinschaften in Chitral, pakistanischer Hindu Kush: Sozioökonomische Organisation und Transformation in montaner Umwelt, Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen 126. Ferger, Bergisch GladbachGoogle Scholar
  22. India Office Records [IOR] Chitral Affairs file No. 33-C of 1886 Vols. II & III. Revenue, IOR/2/1077/235/11826/214–213Google Scholar
  23. Israr-ud-Din (1965) A social geography of Chitral State. M.Sc.-thesis, King’s College, University of London (2 vols)Google Scholar
  24. Israr-ud-Din (1969) The people of Chitral. A survey of their ethnic diversity. Pakistan Geogr Rev 24:45–57Google Scholar
  25. Israr-ud-Din (1996) Irrigation and society in Chitral District. In: Bashir E, Israr-ud-Din (eds) Proceedings of the second international Hindukush cultural conference. Hindukush and Karakoram Studies 1. Oxford University Press, Karachi, pp 19–42Google Scholar
  26. IUCN Pakistan (2004) Chitral. A study in statecraft (1320–1969). IUCN Pakistan, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  27. Ives JD (2004) Himalayan perceptions. Environmental change and the well-being of mountain peoples. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Khan AS (2000) Migratory livestock industry among nomadic herdsmen in Chitral. IUCN-CCS Study, ChitralGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan YM, Khan M (n.d.) Integrated land resources survey report of Chitral sub-project (Chitral District). North-West Frontier Province Forestry Pre-investment Centre Peshawar, Series 1. PeshawarGoogle Scholar
  30. Kreutzmann H (1998) The Chitral triangle. Rise and decline of trans-montane central Asian trade, 1895–1935. Asien-Afrika-Lateinamerika 26:289–327Google Scholar
  31. Kreutzmann H (2004a) Pastoral practices and their transformation in the north-western Karakoram. Nomadic Peoples (N.S.) 8:54–88Google Scholar
  32. Kreutzmann H (2004b) Accessibility for High Asia. Comparative perspectives on northern Pakistan’s traffic infrastructure and linkages with neighbours in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya. J Mt Sci 1:193–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kreutzmann H (2005) Linguistic diversity in space and time. A survey in the eastern Hindukush and Karakoram. Himal Linguist 4:1–24Google Scholar
  34. Lawrence W (ed) (1908) The imperial gazetteer of India. Kashmir and Jammu, provincial series 13. Clarendon Press, Oxford (Reprint: Lahore 1983)Google Scholar
  35. Lockhart WSA, Woodthorpe RG (1889) Confidential report of the Gilgit Mission 1885–86. Eyre and Spottiswoode, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Marsden M (2005) Living Islam. Muslim religious experience in Pakistan’s north-west frontier. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mulk M (1991) A microcosm of farmers’ strategies in Chitral. Aga Khan Rural Support Programme Occasional Paper 1. GilgitGoogle Scholar
  38. National Documentation Centre (National Archives of Pakistan), Acc. No. 826 (NDC 826) “Proposed transfer of Mastuj district to the Mehtar of Chitral, 1909–12”Google Scholar
  39. Nüsser M (1998) Nanga Parbat (NW-Himalaya). Naturräumliche Ressourcenausstattung und humanökologische Gefügemuster der Landnutzung, Bonner Geographische Abhandlungen 97. Dümmler, BonnGoogle Scholar
  40. Nüsser M (1999) Mobile Tierhaltung in Chitral: Hochweidenutzung und Existenzsicherung im pakistanischen Hindukusch. In: Janzen J (ed) Räumliche Mobilität und Existenzsicherung, Abhandlungen – Anthropogeographie 60. Reimer, Berlin, pp 105–131Google Scholar
  41. Nüsser M (2001) Understanding cultural landscape transformation. A re-photographic survey in Chitral, eastern Hindukush, Pakistan. Landscape Urban Plan 57:241–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nüsser M (2003) Ressourcennutzung und Umweltdegradation. Mensch-Umwelt-Beziehungen in peripheren Gebirgsräumen. In: Meusburger P, Schwan T (eds) Humanökologie. Ansätze zur Überwindung der Natur-Kultur-Dichotomie, Erdkundliches Wissen 135. Steiner, Stuttgart, pp 327–342Google Scholar
  43. Nüsser M, Dickoré W-B (2002) A tangle in the triangle. Vegetation map of the eastern Hindukush (Chitral, northern Pakistan). Erdkunde 56:37–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ostrom E, Burger J, Field CB, Norgaard RB, Policansky D (1999) Revisiting the commons: local lessons, global challenges. Science 284:278–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Parkes P (1987) Livestock symbolism and pastoral ideology among the Kafirs of the Hindu Kush. Man (N.S.) 22:637–660Google Scholar
  46. Parkes P (1992) Reciprocity and redistribution in Kalasha prestige feasts. Anthropozoologica 16:37–46Google Scholar
  47. Parkes P (2001) Alternative social structures and foster relations in the Hindu Kush. Milk kinship allegiance in former mountain kingdoms of northern Pakistan. Comp Stud Soc Hist 43:4–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robertson GS (1896) The Kafirs of the Hindukush. Lawrence and Bullen, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. Scheibe A (1937) Die Landbauverhältnisse in Nuristan. In: Scheibe A (ed) Deutsche im Hindukusch. Bericht der deutschen Hindukusch-Expedition 1935 der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Deutsche Forschung 1. Siegismund, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  50. Schomberg RCF (1936) Derdi and Chapursan Valleys. Mountains of N.W. Chitral. Alpine J 48:295–310Google Scholar
  51. Staley J (1982) Words for my brother. Travels between the Hindu Kush and the Himalayas. Oxford University Press, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  52. Strand RF (1997–2011). Nuristan. Hidden land of the Hindu-Kush. http://users.sedona.net/∼strand/. Accessed 30 May 2011

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography, South Asia InstituteUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Institute of GeographyHamburg UniversityHamburgGermany
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Urban & Regional PlanningUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations