Advertisement

Pastoral Practices in Transition: Animal Husbandry in High Asian Contexts

  • Hermann KreutzmannEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER)

Abstract

Vast tracts of High Asia are utilised for pastoral strategies of survival, and the mountainous areas provide livelihoods to herders and their households. Locally adopted and adapted pastoral practices reflect politico-historical and socio-economic changes that are often the result of external intervention. Pastoral practices in the mountain periphery seem to be a vital indicator of change. Two regions will receive special attention – the Pamirian Knot and the Tibetan Plateau – in 16 case studies grounded in the wider framework of. External and internal ­boundary-making and quite distinct path-dependent developments are reflected in the typology given here. The focus of the case studies is directed towards the variation of experiences in a wider angle, drawing attention to marginalised groups in the mountainous periphery of High Asia.

Keywords

Modernisation Development Pastoral adaptation strategies Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya Pamir Tibetan Plateau 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Insights presented in this chapter were collected from 1984 to 2011 in several research projects that received generous funding provided by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Volkswagen Foundation. The previous and the continuing support is gratefully acknowledged. In addition, the Mountain Development Programme of InWEnt – Capacity Building International – supported the meeting and exchange with pastoralism experts in conferences, symposia and workshops in High Asia since 2000 and enabled an intensified sharing of knowledge between academics, decision-makers and development practitioners. Personal experiences of pastoral practices were enjoyed in High Asia mainly in the Hindukush, Pamirs, Karakoram and Himalaya during about a decade of fieldwork in which I significantly learnt from shepherds and yak breeders.

References

  1. Agrawal A, Saberwal VK (2004) Whither South Asian pastoralism? An introduction. Nomadic Peoples 8:36–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alden Wily L (2004) Looking for peace on the pastures. Rural land relations in Afghanistan. Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit, KabulGoogle Scholar
  3. Alden Wily L (2009) Recommended strategy for conflict resolution of competing high pasture claims of settled and nomadic communities in Afghanistan. UNEP, KabulGoogle Scholar
  4. Alirol P (1979) Transhuming animal husbandry systems in the Kalinchowk region (Central Nepal): a comprehensive study of animal husbandry on the southern slopes of the Himalayas. SDC, BernGoogle Scholar
  5. An S-Z, Jian D, Zhaohui L, Yonggang M, Xiao-Yuan L (2011) Pastoralism in China’s Xinjiang Kizilsu Kirghiz autonomous prefecture. In: Kreutzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Zhaohui L, Richter J (eds) Regional workshop in Khorog and Kashgar. Pastoralism and rangeland management in mountain areas in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 119–131Google Scholar
  6. Axelby R (2007) ‘It takes two hands to clap’: how Gaddi shepherds in the Indian Himalayas negotiate access to grazing. J Agrarian Change 7(1):35–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Azhar-Hewitt F (1999) Women of the high pastures and the global economy: reflections on the impacts of modernization in the Hushe valley of the Karakorum, Northern Pakistan. Mt Res Dev 19(2):141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Banjade MR, Paudel NS (2008) Mobile pastoralism in crisis: challenges, conflicts and status of pasture tenure in Nepal mountains. J Livelihood 7(1):49–57Google Scholar
  9. Banks T, Richard C, Ping L, Zhaoli Y (2003) Community-based grassland management in western China: rationale, pilot project experience, and policy implications. Mt Res Dev 23(2):132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barfield T (1993) The nomadic alternative. Prentice Hall, Englewoods CliffGoogle Scholar
  11. Barfield T (2008) Nomadic pastoralists in Afghanistan. Reconstruction of the pastoral economy. In: Janzen J, Enkhtuvshin B (eds) Present state and perspectives of nomadism in a globalizing world. Admon, Ulaanbaatar, pp 189–204Google Scholar
  12. Bauer K (2006) Common property and power: insights from a spatial analysis of historical and contemporary pasture boundaries among pastoralists in Central Tibet. J Political Ecol 13:24–47Google Scholar
  13. Benson L, Svanberg I (1998) China’s last nomads: the history and culture of China’s Kazaks. M. E. Sharpe, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
  14. Beuermann A (1967) Fernweidewirtschaft in Südosteuropa. Westermann, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhasin V (1996) Transhumants of Himalayas. Changpas of Ladakh, Gaddis of Himachal Pradesh and Bhutias of Sikkim. Kamla-Raj Enterprises, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  16. Blache J (1934) L’homme et la montagne. Géographie humaine 3. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackburn S (2007) Oral stories and culture areas: from northeast India to southwest China. South Asia 30(3):423–424Google Scholar
  18. Brower B, Johnston BR (eds) (2007) Disappearing peoples? Indigenous groups and ethnic minorities in South and Central Asia. Left Coast Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  19. Cerny A (2010) Going where the grass is greener: China Kazaks and the Oralman immigration policy in Kazakhstan. Pastoralism 1(2):218–247Google Scholar
  20. Chakravarty-Kaul M (1998) Transhumance and customary pastoral rights in Himachal Pradesh: claiming the high pastures for Gaddis. Mt Res Dev 18(1):5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christian D (2000) Silk roads or steppe roads? The silk roads in world history. J World Hist 11(1):1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dangwal DD (2009) The lost mobility. Pastoralism and modernity in Uttarakhand Himalaya (India). Nomadic Peoples 13(2):84–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies J, Hatfield R (2007) The economics of mobile pastoralism: a global summary. Nomadic Peoples 11(1):91–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Derville M, Bonnemaire J (2010) Marginalisation of yak herders in Bhutan: can public policy generate new stabilities that can support the transformation of their skills and organisations? Innovation and Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food. ISDA 2010, Montpellier, June 28–30, 2010, pp 1–10. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/52/20/45/PDF/DervilleBonnemaire_Marginalisation_of_yak.pdf. Accessed 8 Aug 2011
  25. di Cosmo N (1999) State formation and periodization in inner Asian history. J World Hist 10(1):1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dost M (2003) Pastoral resource profile for Pakistan. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/Counprof/Pakistan.htm
  27. Dyson-Hudson R, Dyson-Hudson N (1980) Nomadic pastoralism. Annu Rev Anthropol 9:15–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehlers E, Kreutzmann H (eds) (2000) High mountain pastoralism in Northern Pakistan. Steiner, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferdinand K (2006) Afghan nomads. Caravans, conflicts and trade in Afghanistan and British India 1800–1980. Rhodos, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  30. Finke P (2005) Contemporary pastoralism in Central Asia. In: Rasuly-Paleczek G, Katschnig J (eds) Central Asia on display. Proceedings of the VII. Conference of the European Society for Central Asian. LIT, Vienna, pp 397–410Google Scholar
  31. Foggin MJ (2008) Depopulating the Tibetan grasslands. National policies and perspectives for the future of Tibetan herders in Qinghai Province, China. Mt Res Dev 28(1):26–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Galaty JG, Aronson D, Salzman PC, Chouinard A (eds) (1981) The future of pastoral peoples. International Development Research Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  33. Gertel J, Breuer I (eds) (2007) Pastoral Morocco. Globalizing scapes of mobility and insecurity. Reichert, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  34. Ginat J, Khazanov AM (eds) (1998) Changing nomads in a changing world. Sussex Academic Press, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  35. Glatzer B (1981) Processes of nomadization in West Afghanistan. In: Salzman PC (ed) Contemporary nomadic and pastoral peoples: Asia and the North. Studies in third world societies 18. Department of Anthropology, Williamsburg, pp 61–86Google Scholar
  36. Goldstein M, Beall C (1991) Change and continuity in nomadic pastoralism on the Western Tibetan Plateau. Nomadic Peoples 28:105–122Google Scholar
  37. Goldstein M, Beall C (2002) Changing patterns of Tibetan nomadic pastoralism. In: Leonard WR, Crawford MH (eds) Human biology of pastoral populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 131–150Google Scholar
  38. Gruschke A (2008) Nomads without pastures? Globalization, regionalization, and livelihood security of nomads and former nomads in Northern Khams. J Int Assoc Tibetan Stud 4:1–40Google Scholar
  39. Guillet D (1983) Toward a cultural ecology of mountains. The Central Andes and the Himalaya compared. Curr Anthropol 24(5):561–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gura S (2006) Review of the literature on pastoral economics and marketing: Afghanistan, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey. IUCN, World Initiative for Sustainable Pastoralism, NairobiGoogle Scholar
  41. Harris RB (2010) Rangeland degradation on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau: a review of the evidence of its magnitude and causes. J Arid Environ 74:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ho P (2000) The clash over state and collective property: the making of the rangeland law. China Q 16(1):240–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Humphrey C, Sneath D (1999) The end of nomadism? Society, state and the environment in inner Asia. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  44. Inam-ur-Rahim, Amin Beg (2011) Production and marketing of livestock products in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya. In: Kreutzmann H, Yong Y, Richter J (eds) Regional workshop in Lhasa 2010 – pastoralism and rangeland management on the Tibetan Plateau in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 177–199Google Scholar
  45. Jettmar K (1960) Soziale und wirtschaftliche Dynamik bei asiatischen Gebirgsbauern. Sociologus, N.S. 10:120–138Google Scholar
  46. Johnson DC (1969) The nature of nomadism: a comparative study of pastoral migrations in Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa. University Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones S (2005) Transhumance re-examined. J R Anthropol Inst 11(2):357–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Joshi SR, Gurung BR (2009) Value chain analysis of dairy in Merak and Sakteng. Ministry of Agriculture & Forests, ThimphuGoogle Scholar
  49. Karmyševa B (1981) Versuch einer Typologisierung der traditionellen Formen der Viehwirtschaft Mittelasiens und Kasachstans am Ende des 19. – Anfang des 20. Jh. In: Krusche R (ed) Die Nomaden in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Veröffentlichungen des Museums für Völkerkunde zu Leipzig 33. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, pp 91–96Google Scholar
  50. Kaufmann JC (2009) The sediment of nomadism. Hist Afr 36:235–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Khazanov AM (1984) Nomads and the outside world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (second edition Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 1994)Google Scholar
  52. Khazanov AM (2005) Nomads and cities in the Eurasian Steppe region and adjacent countries: a historical overview. In: Leder S, Streck B (eds) Shifts and drifts in nomad-sedentary relations. Reichert, Wiesbaden, pp 163–178Google Scholar
  53. Klieger PC (ed) (2006) Tibetan borderlands. Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  54. Kothari U, Minogue M (eds) (2002) Development theory and practice. Critical perspectives. Palgrave, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  55. Kreutzmann H (2004) Pastoral practices and their transformation in the North-Western Karakoram. Nomadic Peoples 8(2):54–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kreutzmann H (2009) Transformations of high mountain pastoral strategies in the Pamirian knot. Nomadic Peoples 13(2):102–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kreutzmann H (2011) Pastoral practices on the move. Recent transformations in mountain pastoralism on the Tibetan Plateau. In: Kreutzmann H, Yong Y, Richter J (eds) Regional workshop in Lhasa 2010. Pastoralism and rangeland management on the Tibetan Plateau in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 200–224Google Scholar
  58. Kreutzmann H, Schütte S (2011) Contested commons – multiple insecurities of pastoralists in North-Eastern Afghanistan. Erdkunde 65(2):99–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kreutzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Zhaohui L, Richter J (eds) (2011a) Regional workshop in Khorog and Kashgar. Pastoralism and rangeland management in mountain areas in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, BonnGoogle Scholar
  60. Kreutzmann H, Yong Y, Richter J (eds) (2011b) Regional workshop in Lhasa 2010. Pastoralism and rangeland management on the Tibetan Plateau in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, BonnGoogle Scholar
  61. Li W, Huntsinger L (2011) China’s grassland contract policy and its impacts on herder ability to benefit in Inner Mongolia: tragic feedbacks. Ecol Soc 16(2):1. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol16/iss2/art1/
  62. Lu T, Wu N, Luo P (2009) Sedentarization of Tibetan nomads. Conserv Biol 23(5):1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Manderscheid A (2001) Decline and re-emergence of Nomadism: Tibetan pastoralists revive a nomadic way of life and production. GeoJournal 53:173–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mathieu J (2011) The third dimension. A comparative history of mountains in the modern Era. The White Horse Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  65. Messerschmidt DC (1976) Ecological change and adaptation among the Gurungs of the Nepal Himalaya. Hum Ecol 4(2):167–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Miehe G et al (2001) The climatic diagram map of High Asia. Purpose and concepts. Erdkunde 55:94–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Miller DJ (2000) Tough times for Tibetan nomads in Western China: snowstorms, settling down, fences, and the demise of traditional nomadic pastoralism. Nomadic Peoples 4(1):83–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller DJ (2002) The importance of China’s nomads. The sustainable future development of China’s rangelands depends on integrating nomads’ indigenous knowledge. Rangelands 24(1):22–24Google Scholar
  69. Miller DJ (2008) Drokpa: nomads of the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya. Vajra Books, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  70. Montero RG, Mathieu J, Singh C (2009) Mountain pastoralism 1500–2000: an introduction. Nomadic Peoples 13(2):1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Natarajan T (2005) Agency of development and agents of change: localization, resistance, and empowerment. J Econ Issues 39(2):409–418Google Scholar
  72. Nautiyal S, Rao KS, Maiykhuri RK, Saxena KG (2003) Transhumant pastoralism in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India. A case study in the buffer zone. Mt Res Dev 23(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nüsser M, Gerwin M (2008) Diversity, complexity and dynamics: land use patterns in the Central Himalayas of Kumaon, Northern India. In: Löffler J, Stadelbauer J (eds) Diversity in mountain systems, Colloquium geographicum 31. Asgard, Sankt Augustin, pp 107–119Google Scholar
  74. Omer RM, Hester AJ, Gordon IJ, Swaine MD, Raffique SM (2006) Seasonal changes in pasture biomass, production and offtake under the transhumance system in northern Pakistan. J Arid Environ 67:641–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ptackova J (2011) Sedentarisation of Tibetan nomads in China: implementation of the nomadic settlement project in the Tibetan Amdo area; Qinghai and Sichuan Provinces. Pastoralism Res, Policy Pract 1:4. http://www.pastoralismjournal.com/content/1/1/4
  76. Qonunov Y (2011) Recent changes in pastoral systems. Case study on Tajikistan. In: Kreutzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Zhaohui L, Richter J (eds) Regional workshop in Khorog and Kashgar. Pastoralism and rangeland management in mountain areas in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 82–101Google Scholar
  77. Rahman A, Duncan AJ, Miller DW, Clemens J, Frutos P, Gordon IJ, Rehman A-ur, Baig A, Ali F, Wright IA (2008) Livestock feed resources, production and management in the agro-pastoral system of the Hindu Kush – Karakoram – Himalayan region of Pakistan: the effect of accessibility. Agr Syst 96:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rao A, Casimir MJ (eds) (2003) Nomadism in South Asia. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  79. Rinschede G (1979) Die Transhumance in den französischen Alpen und in den Pyrenäen, Westfälische Geographische Studien 32. Im Selbstverlag der Geographischen Kommission für Westfalen, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  80. Rinschede G (1988) Transhumance in European and American Mountains. In: Allan NJR, Knapp G, Stadel C (eds) Human impact on mountains. Rowman & Littlefield, Totowa, pp 96–108Google Scholar
  81. Robinson S, Whitton M (2010) Pasture in Gorno-Badakhshan, Tajikistan: common resource or private property? Pastoralism 1(2):198–217Google Scholar
  82. Robinson S, Whitton M, Biber-Klemm S, Muzofirshoev N (2010) The impact of land reform legislation on pasture tenure in Gorno-Badakhshan. Mt Res Dev 30(1):4–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Roder W, Wangdi K, Gyamtsho P, Dorji K (2001) Feeding the herds. Improving fodder resources in Bhutan. Icimod, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  84. Roe E, Huntsinger L, Labnow K (1998) High reliability pastoralism. J Arid Environ 39:39–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Saberwal VK (1999) Pastoral politics: shepherds, bureaucrats, and conservation in the Western Himalayas. Oxford University Press, Delhi/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Salzman PC (ed) (1980) When nomads settle: processes of sedentarization as adaptation and response. Praeger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. Salzman PC (2004) Pastoralists. Equality, hierarchy, and the state. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  88. Salzman PC, Galaty JG (1990) Nomads in a changing world: issues and problems. In: Salzman PC, Galaty JG (eds) Nomads in a changing world. Instituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  89. Scholz F (2002) Nomadism and colonialism. A hundred years of Baluchistan 1872–1972. Oxford University Press, KarachiGoogle Scholar
  90. Scholz F (2008) Nomadism. A socioecological mode of culture. International Institute for the Study of Nomadic Civilizations, UlaanbaatarGoogle Scholar
  91. Scott JC (2009) The art of not being governed. An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia. Yale University Press, New Haven/LondonGoogle Scholar
  92. Seaman G (ed) (1989) Ecology and empire. Nomads in the cultural evolution of the old world. Ethnographics/USC, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  93. Shahrani MN (1979) The Kirghiz and Wakhi of Afghanistan. Adaptation to closed frontiers. University of Washington Press, Seattle/LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Sharma VP, Köhler-Rollefson I, Morton J (2003) Pastoralism in India. A scoping study. DFID, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  95. Shashi SS (1979) The nomads of the Himalayas. Sundeep Prakashan, DelhiGoogle Scholar
  96. Sheehy DP, Miller D, Johnson DA (2006) Transformation of traditional pastoral livestock systems on the Tibetan steppe. Sécheresse 17(1–2):142–151Google Scholar
  97. Shneiderman S (2010) Are the Central Himalayas in Zomia? Some scholarly and political considerations across time and space. J Glob Hist 5:289–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Snoy P (1993) Alpwirtschaft in Hindukusch und Karakorum. In: Schweinfuhrt U (ed) Neue Forschungen im Himalaya, Erdkundliches Wissen 112. Steiner, Stuttgart, pp 49–73Google Scholar
  99. Stevens SF (1993) Claiming the high ground: sherpas, subsistence, and environmental change in the highest Himalaya. University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles/LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Tapper R (2008) Who are the Kuchi? Nomad self-identities in Afghanistan. J R Anthropol Inst 14:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tashi Y, Chamard PC, Courel M-F, Tiyip T, Tuerxun Y, Drake S (2010) The recent evolution of the oasis environment in the Taklimakan Desert, China. In: Schneier-Madanes G, Courel M-F (eds) Water and sustainability in arid regions. Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp 51–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tucker RP (1986) The evolution of transhumant grazing in the Punjab Himalaya. Mt Res Dev 6(1):17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tulachan PM (2001) State of mountain agriculture in the Hindukush-Himalayas. A regional comparative analysis. Icimod, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
  104. Uhlig H (1976) Bergbauern und Hirten im Himalaya. In: Uhlig H, Ehlers E (eds) Tagungsbericht und wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen. 40. Deutscher Geographentag Innsbruck (19.-25.5.1975). Steiner, Wiesbaden, pp 549–586Google Scholar
  105. Uhlig H (1995) Persistence and change in high mountain agricultural systems. Mt Res Dev 15(3):199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. van Driem G (2001) Languages of the Himalayas: an ethnolinguistic handbook of the greater Himalayan region. Brill, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  107. van Schendel W (2002) Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: jumping scale in Southeast Asia. Environ Plan D Soc Space 20(6):647–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. von Schlagintweit R (1865) Physikalisch-geographische Schilderung von Hochasien. Petermanns Geographische Mittheilungen 11:361–377Google Scholar
  109. von Schlagintweit-Sakünlünski H (1869–1880) Reisen in Indien und Hochasien. Eine Darstellung der Landschaft, der Cultur und Sitten der Bewohner, in Verbindung mit klimatischen und geologischen Verhältnissen. Basirt auf die Resultate der wissenschaftlichen Mission von Hermann, Adolph und Robert von Schlagintweit. Erster Band 1896: Indien. Zweiter Band 1871: Hochasien. I: Der Himálaya von Bhután bis Kashmir. Dritter Band 1872: Hochasien. II: Tibet zwischen der Himálaya- und der Karakorum-Kette. Vierter Band 1880: Hochasien. III: Ost-Turkistán und Umgebungen. Nebst wissenschaftlichen Zusammenstellungen über die Höhengebiete und über die thermischen Verhältnisse. Hermann Costenoble, JenaGoogle Scholar
  110. von Schlagintweit-Sakünlünski H (1870) Erläuterung der Gebiete Hochasiens. Sitzungsberichte Akademie München 2:313–327Google Scholar
  111. Weissleder W (1978) The nomadic alternative. Modes and models of interaction in the African-Asian deserts and steppes. Mouton, The Hague/ParisGoogle Scholar
  112. Xinchun Z (2011) Pastoralism in Xinjiang: implementing the pastoralist settlement programme to promote sustainable development of pastoralism in Xinjiang. In: Kreutzmann H, Abdulalishoev K, Zhaohui L, Richter J (eds) Regional workshop in Khorog and Kashgar. Pastoralism and rangeland management in mountain areas in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 182–188Google Scholar
  113. Yamaguchi T (2011) Transition of mountain pastoralism: an agrodiversity analysis of the livestock population and herding strategies in Southeast Tibet, China. Hum Ecol 39:141–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yeh ET (2005) Green governmentality and pastoralism in Western China: ‘converting pastures to grasslands’. Nomadic Peoples 9(1–2):9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Younian Z (2011) Achievements and visions of agricultural and pastoral development in the Tibet autonomous region. In: Kreutzmann H, Yong Y, Richter J (eds) Production and marketing of livestock products in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram-Himalaya. Regional workshop in Lhasa 2010 – pastoralism and rangeland management on the Tibetan Plateau in the context of climate and global change. GIZ, Bonn, pp 265–280Google Scholar
  116. Zhizhong Wu, Wen Du (2008) Pastoral nomad rights in inner Mongolia. Nomadic Peoples 12(2):13–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Human Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Centre for Development Studies (ZELF) and Institute of Geographical SciencesFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations