Human Embryonic Stem Cell Bank: Implication of Human Leukocyte Antigens and ABO Blood Group Antigens for Cell Transplantation
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are pluripotent and have an unlimited proliferation capacity; therefore, they have been expected as the most powerful candidate to have the potential for curing currently untreatable illnesses. For clinical applications, it is imperative that immune responses to transplanted hESCs and their derivatives should be prevented, although the safety of hESCs in terms of tumorigenicity and transmission of infection needs to be confirmed. Human has two major transplantation antigen systems, the Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and ABO blood group antigen (ABO) system. HLA matching between the recipient and unrelated donors is the most important factor in improving outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), and regarding solid organ transplantation, ABO matching is by far the most important factor. This review discusses the immunological barriers to cell transplantation therapy, the immunological properties of hESCs and their differentiated derivatives, and strategies for overcoming immune rejection after the transplantation of these cells. The creation of worldwide stem cell banks that are able to provide HLA-matched hESC-derived specific cells or tissues to patients would be the best strategy to overcome allograft rejection of hESCs, under the circumstances that the establishment of more than 1,000 hESC lines have been reported around the world.
KeywordsMajor Histocompatibility Complex Human Leukocyte Antigen Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Human Embryonic Stem Cell Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
This research was supported by a grant (SC-1140) from the Stem Cell Research Center of the twenty-first Century Frontier Research Program funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea.
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