Radio Physical Studies of Planets and the Earth at the Institute of Radio Technology and Electronics of the USSR Academy of Sciences
Stages in the development of radar astronomy and the main methods and scientific results obtained at the Institute of Radio Technology and Electronics (IRE) beginning in the 1960s are discussed. The fundamental importance for manned space flight of the radical improvement in the accuracy of the astronomical unit achieved using radar measurements of planets is underscored, together with other important results of studies of planetary surfaces. Studies of the atmosphere and surface of the Earth using radio-astronomy methods are described in detail, including satellite techniques. The results of radio-physical studies of the ionospheres of the Moon and planets carried out by analysing signals transmitted by spacecraft and received on the Earth are also presented.