Synthesis and Options for Sustainable Management

  • Mohamad Ismail Shaharuddin
  • Ratnam Wickneswari
Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER, volume 2)


Sustainable management of natural forests highly depend on their ability to regenerate. Successful regeneration of forests accompanied by conservation of genetic diversity of its species is important for both short-term adaptation to environmental change and long-term impact on species and communities. Forest harvesting activities invariably cause some damages to the forest ecosystem and the surrounding environment. However, it has been observed that careful and proper planning of harvesting and the implementation of reduced impact logging practices will help reduce the severity of damage to the forest. For a practical guide for genetic conservation, it is highly recommended that the requirement for the genetic conservation be incorporated in the various stages of activities undertaken during forest harvesting.


Mother tree Silviculture treatment Enrichment planting Forest inventory Residual stand Seedling sampling Timber tagging Cutting limit 



The authors would like to acknowledge senior forester Mohamed Murad for providing useful insights on harvesting operations in Peninsular Malaysia and comments on an earlier version of this chapter.


  1. Smith DM (1962) The practice of silviculture, 7th edn. Wiley, New York, NYGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamad Ismail Shaharuddin
    • 1
  • Ratnam Wickneswari
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)UKM BangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of Science and TechnologySchool of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

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