Advertisement

Threats to Genetic Viability of Southeast Asian Forest Species

  • Ratnam Wickneswari
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Asian Human-Environmental Research book series (AAHER, volume 2)

Abstract

The major threat to genetic viability of the Southeast Asian forest species is commercial logging and fragmentation being largely due to infrastructural development and agricultural activities. Species vulnerability to the threat of genetic viability posed by commercial logging is highly correlated with its abundance in a particular forest management unit. Tree density for the species can be a useful indicator in reflecting the risk of genetic viability rather than the overall disturbance level based on reduction in basal area of all trees. Reproductive success of mature trees together with successful regeneration of seedlings and saplings in disturbed forests is an important determinant of genetic viability of species. Knowledge of the biological attributes of species including their local evolution can be used to develop field guides in harvesting operations to ensure the genetic quality of residuals left behind in the post-harvest stands.

Keywords

Genetic viability Species vulnerability Tree density Reproductive success Commercial logging Fragmentation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Comments and criticisms from an anonymous reviewer are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Ashton PS (1982) Dipterocarpaceae. Flora Malesiana I 9:237–552Google Scholar
  2. Boyle TJB, Liengsiri C, Piewluang C (1990) Genetic studies in a tropical pine: Pinus kesiya II Genetic variation among four populations in northern Thailand. J Trop Forest Sci 3(4):308–317Google Scholar
  3. Boyle TJB, Cossalter C, Griffin AR (1997) Genetic resources for plantation forestry. In: Nambiar EKS, Brown AG (eds) Management of soil, nutrients and water in tropical plantation forests. CSIRO, Canberra, pp 25–63Google Scholar
  4. Brown AHD (1979) Enzyme polymorphisms in plant populations. Theor Popul Biol 15:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown AG, Nambiar EKS, Cossalter C (1997) Plantations for the tropics – their Role, extent and nature. In: Nambiar EKS, Brown AG (eds) Management of soil, nutrients and water in tropical plantation forests. CSIRO, Canberra, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  6. Bush RM, Smouse PE (1992) Evidence for the adaptive significance of allozymes in forest trees. New Forests 6:179–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao CP, Finkeldey R, Iskandar ZS, Ulfah JS, Gailing O (2006) Genetic diversity within and among populations of Shorea leprosula Miq. and Shorea parvifolia Dyer (Dipterocarpaceae) in Indonesia detected by AFLPs. Tree Genet Genomes 2:225–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cao CP, Gailing O, Iskandar ZS, Ulfah JS, Finkeldey R (2009) Genetic variation in nine Shorea species (Dipterocarpaceae) in Indonesia revealed by AFLPs. Tree Genet Genomes 5:407–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaisurisri KJ, Wungplong P, Liewlasaneeyanawin C, Boyle TJB (1997) Impacts of disturbance on genetic diversity of some forest species in Thailand. In: Wrap-up workshop of the CIFOR-IPGRI impact of disturbance project, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Changtragoon S (1997) Impact of disturbance on genetic diversity of Cycas siamensis in Thailand. In: Wrap-up workshop of the CIFOR-IPGRI impact of disturbance project, Bangalore, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  11. Changtragoon S, Szmidt AE (2000) Genetic diversity of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) in Thailand revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In: IUFRO Working Party 2.08.01 tropical species breeding and genetic resources: forest genetics for the next millennium. International Conferences Centre, Durban, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  12. Coles JF, Boyle TJB (1999) Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz. A monograph. Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Das BL, Stephan BR (1984) Provenance trial of Pinus kesiya at Koraput, Orissa, India. In: Barnes RD, Gibson GL (eds) Provenance and genetic improvement strategies in tropical forest trees. Department of Forestry, CFI, University of Oxford, Oxford, pp 200–204Google Scholar
  14. FAO (1993) Forest resource assessment 1990. Tropical Countries. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghazoul J (1997) The pollination and breeding system of Dipterocarpus obtusifolius (Dipterocarpaceae) in dry deciduous forests of Thailand. J Nat History 31:901–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ghazoul J, Liston K, Boyle TJB (1998) Disturbance-induced density-dependent seed set in Shorea siamensis (Dipterocarpaceae), a tropical forest tree. J Ecol 86:462–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gregorius HR, Hattemer TT, Bergmann F, Müller-Starck G (1985) Unweltbelastung und Anpassungsfähigkeit von Baumpopulationen. Silvae Genetica 34:230–241Google Scholar
  18. Hamrick JL, Linhart YB, Mitton JB (1979) Relationship between life history characteristics and electrophoretically detectable genetic variation in plants. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 10:175–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ho WS, Wickneswari R, Shukor MN, Mahani MC (2004) The effects of the timing and method of logging on forest structure in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Ecol Manage 203:209–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hou D (2000) Leguminosae (subfamily Caesalpinioideae). In: Soepadmo E, Saw LG (eds) Tree flora of Sabah and Sarawak. Ampang Press, Kuala Lumpur, pp 119–180Google Scholar
  21. Kanzaki M, Watanatabe M, Kuwahara J, Kendawang JJ, Lee HS, Serzawa S, Yamakura T (1996) Genetic structure of Shorea macrophylla in Sarawak, Malaysia. Tropics 5(1/2):153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kertadikara A, Prat D (1995) Gene diversity study based on isozyme analysis of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) provenances. In: Proceedings of a IUFRO symposium, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 1994, pp 227–235Google Scholar
  23. Ledig FT (1988) The conservation of diversity in forest trees. BioScience 38:471–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lee SL (2007) Conservation strategies of a common dipterocarp endemic to Peninsular Malaysia: Neobalanocarpus heimii (chengal). Technical report to Bioversity International for LOA No. APO05/016, 32Google Scholar
  25. Lee SL, Wickneswari R, Mahani MC, Zakri AH (2000a) Genetic diversity of a tropical tree species, Shorea leprosula Miq. (Dipterocarpaceae), in Malaysia: Implications for conservation of genetic resources and tree improvement. Biotropica 32(2):213–224Google Scholar
  26. Lee SL, Ang KC, Norwati M (2000b) Genetic diversity of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F. (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia and its pertinence to genetic conservation and tree improvement. Forest Genet 7(3):209–217Google Scholar
  27. Lee SL, Wickneswari R, Mahani MC, Zakri AH (2001) Comparative genetic diversity studies of Shorea leprosula Miq. (Dipterocarpaceae) using RAPD and allozyme markers. J Trop Forest Sci 13(1):202–215Google Scholar
  28. Lee SL, Ng KKS, Saw LG, Norwati A, Siti Salwana MH, Lee CT, Norwati M (2002a) Population genetics of Intsia palembanica (Leguminosae) and genetic conservation of virgin jungle reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Am J Bot 89(3):447–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lee CT, Wickneswari R, Mahani MC, Zakri AH (2002b) Effect of selective logging on the genetic diversity of Scaphium macropodum. Biol Conserv 104:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lee CT, Wickneswari R, Mahani MC, Zakri AH (2002c) Maintenance of genetic diversity in Parkia speciosa in logged-over forests. J Trop Forest Sci 14(2):163–178Google Scholar
  31. Lee SL, Tani N, NG KKS, Tsumura Y (2004) Characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in an endangered tropical tree Hopea bilitonensis (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Mol Ecol Notes 4:147–149Google Scholar
  32. Lee SL, Ng KKS, Saw LG, Lee CT, Norwati M, Tani N, Tsumura Y, Koskela J (2006) Linking the gaps between conservation research and conservation management of rare dipterocarps: a case study of Shorea lumutensis. Biol Conserv 131:72–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee CT, Lee SL, Ng KKS, Salwana HS, Norwati M, Saw LG (2007a) Allozyme diversity of Koompassia malaccensis (Leguminosae) in Peninsular Malaysia. J Trop Forest Sci 19(2):73–78Google Scholar
  34. Lee KS, Wickneswari R, Choong CY (2007b) Stand structure and the genetic diversity of Koompassia malaccensis and Dryobalanops aromatica in unlogged and logged-over stands. Sains Malaysiana 36(2):233–242Google Scholar
  35. Lee CT, Lee SL, Faridah QZ, Siraj SS, Ng KKS, Norwati M (2008) Genetic diversity assessment of Koompassia malaccensis. Pertanika J Trop Agri Sci 31(1):127–133Google Scholar
  36. Liengsiri C, Yeh FC, Boyle TJB (1995) Isozyme analysis of a tropical forest tree, Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz., in Thailand. Forest Ecol Manage 74:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lim LS, Wickneswari R, Lee SL, Latiff A (2002) Genetic variation of Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F. (Dipterocarpaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia using microsatellite DNA markers. Forest Genet 9(2):127–138Google Scholar
  38. Müller-Starck G (1985) Genetic differences between “tolerant” and “sensitive” beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an environmentally stressed adult forest stand. Silvae Genetica 34:241–247Google Scholar
  39. Müller-Starck G, Baradat P, Bergmann F (1992) Genetic variation within European tree species. New Forests 6:23–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murawski DA, Bawa KS (1994) Genetic structure and mating system of Stemonoporus oblongifolius (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sri Lanka. Am J Bot 81:155–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Namkoong G (1991) Biodiversity – issues in genetics, forestry and ethics. Forestry Chron 68:438–443Google Scholar
  42. Namkoong G, Boyle TJB, Gregorius HR, Joly HI, Savolainen O, Ratnam W, Young AJ (1996) Criteria and indicators for impacts of forest management on genetic variation. In: Testing criteria and indicators for sustainable management of forests. CIFOR Working Paper 10, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  43. Namkoong G, Boyle TJB, El-Kassaby YA, Palmberg-Lerche C, Eriksson G, Gregorius HR, Joly HI, Savolainen O, Wickneswari R, Young AJ, Zeh-Nlo M, Prabhu R(2002) Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management: assessment and monitoring of genetic variation. In: Working Paper FGR/37E, Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  44. Ng KKS, Lee SL, Ueno S (2009) Impact of selective logging on genetic diversity of two tropical tree species with contrasting breeding systems using direct comparison and simulation methods. Forest Ecol Manage 257:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Piewluang C, Liengsiri C, Boyle T (1997) Genetic variation of Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz: variation in fruit and seed size and quality within and among natural populations. In: ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre Technical Publication 35. AFTSC, Muak Lek, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  46. Saw CD (1984) Propagation of padauk (Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz). Leaflet 1/83-84. Forest Research Institute, Yezin, MyanmarGoogle Scholar
  47. Soonhuae P, Sziklai O (1994) Genetic conservation strategies for Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre: future directions and research needs. In: Proceedings of AFTSC symposium on genetic conservation and production of tropical forest tree seed, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 1993, pp 257–266Google Scholar
  48. Soonhuae P, Boyle TJB, Yeh FC (1995) The population genetics of Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre and implications for genetic conservation. In: Baradat PH, Adams WT, Müller-Stark G (eds) Population genetics and genetic conservation of forest trees. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp 371–385Google Scholar
  49. Sudarmonowati E, Hartati NS, Siregar U, Boyle TJB (1998) The effect of logging on genetic diversity of Shorea parvifolia in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Poster paper presented at IUFRO division 2 conference on forest genetics and tree improvement, Beijing, 1998Google Scholar
  50. Sudarmonowati E, Hartati NS, Siregar U (2000) Assessing genetic diversity of two different timber species (Shorea parvifolia and Eusideroxylon zwagerii) in Central Kalimantan using DNA markers. In: Proceedings of XXI IUFRO world congress volume III, Kuala Lumpur, 2000, p 69Google Scholar
  51. Szmidt AE, Wang XR, Changtragoon S (1996) Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity in two tropical pines: Pinus kesiya (Royle ex Gordon) and P. merkusii (Jungh et De Vriese). J Theor Appl Genet 92:436–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Templeton AR (1995) Biodiversity at the molecular genetic level: experiences from disparate macroorganisms. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Biodiversity, measurement and estimation. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 59–64Google Scholar
  53. Whuangplong P, Liengsiri C, Piewluang C, Boyle TJB (1992) The effect of seed weight on growth of Pterocarpus macrocarpus seedlings. In: ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre Technical Publication 22. ASEAN Forest Tree Seed Centre, Muak Lek, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  54. Wickneswari R, Boyle TJB (2000) Impact of logging and other forms of harvesting on genetic diversity in tropical forests. In: Young A et al (eds) Forest conservation and genetics: Principles and practice. CSIRO Plant Industry, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  55. Wickneswari R, Zawawi I, Lee SL, Norwati M (1995) Genetic diversity of remnant and planted populations of Hopea odorata in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Proceedings of the international workshop of Bio-Refor, Kangar, Malaysia, 1994, pp 72–76Google Scholar
  56. Wickneswari R, Lee CT, Muhammad N, Boyle TJB (2000) Impact of logging on genetic diversity in humid tropical forests. In: Matyas C (ed) Forest genetics and sustainability, vol 63. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 171–182Google Scholar
  57. Wickneswari R, Ho WS, Lee KS, Lee CT (2004) Impact of disturbance on population and genetic structure of tropical forest trees. Forest Genet 10(3–4):193–201Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Environmental and Natural Resource SciencesUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations