Part of the Vertebrate Paleobiology and Paleoanthropology book series (VERT)


This volume presents a study of site-formation processes at Gesher Benot Ya‘aqov (GBY), focusing on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the faunal remains in order to shed light on the processes involved in the genesis of the site. The objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the different processes that caused various damage types to the GBY bone assemblage. We hope to gain insight into a variety of taxonomic issues of the assemblages, and to draw conclusions based on a detailed comparison of the fossil bone assemblage together with the results of taphonomic experiments. Although the conclusions presented here originally pertained to GBY, they do much to contribute to our understanding of site-formation processes beyond the Jordan Valley and the Levant.


Faunal Assemblage Subsistence Strategy Early Hominins Bone Assemblage Olduvai Gorge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Behrensmeyer, A. K. (1975a). The taphonomy and paleoecology of Plio Pleistocene vertebrate assemblages east of Lake Rudolf, Kenya. Bulletin Museum of Comparative Zoology, 146, 473–578.Google Scholar
  2. Behrensmeyer, A. K. (1975b). Taphonomy and paleoecology in the hominid fossil record. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 19, 36–50.Google Scholar
  3. Behrensmeyer, A. K. (1978). Taphonomic and ecological information from bone weathering. Paleobiology, 4, 150–162.Google Scholar
  4. Binford, L. R. (1981). Bones: Ancient man and modern myths. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  5. Binford, L. R. (1984). Butchering, sharing, and the archaeological record. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 3, 235–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blumenschine, R. J. (1986). Early hominid scavenging opportunities. BAR International Series, Vol. 283. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  7. Blumenschine, R. J. (1988). An experimental model of the timing of hominid and carnivore influence on archaeological bone assemblage. Journal of Archaeological Science, 15, 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blumenschine, R. J. (1995). Percussion marks, tooth marks, and timing of hominid and carnivore access to long bones at FLK Zinjanthropus Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 29, 21–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bocherens, H., Billiou, D., Patou-Mathis, M., Otte, M., Bonjean, D., Toussaint, M., et al. (1999). Palaeoenvironmental and palaeodietary implications of isotopic biogeochemistry of late interglacial Neandertal and mammal bones in Scladina Cave (Belgium). Journal of Archaeological Science, 26(6), 599–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brantingham, P. J. (1998). Hominid-carnivore coevolution and invasion of the predatory guild. Journal of Antropological Archaeology, 17, 327–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunn, H. T. (1997). The bone assemblages from the excavated sites. In G. L. L. Isaac (Ed.), Koobi fora research project (pp. 402–458). Vol. 5: Plio-Pleistocene Archaeology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bunn, H. T. (2001). Hunting, power, scavenging, and butchering in the Hadza foragers and Plio-Pleistocene Homo. In C. B. Stanford & H. T. Bunn (Eds.), Meat-eating and human evolution (pp. 199–218). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bunn, H. T., & Ezzo, J. A. (1993). Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: Nutritional constraints, archaeological patterns, and behavioural implications. Journal of Archaeological Science, 20, 365–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bunn, H. T., & Kroll, E. M. (1986). Systematic butchery by Plio-Pleistocene hominids at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Current Anthropology, 27, 431–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capaldo, S. D. (1997). Experimental determinations of carcass processing by Plio-Pleistocene hominids and carnivores at FLK 22 (Zinjanthropus), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Journal of Human Evolution, 33, 555–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Delagnes, A., & Roche, H. (2005). Late Pliocene hominid knapping skills: The case of Lokalalei 2C, West Turkana, Kenya. Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 435–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dennell, R., & Roebroeks, W. (1996). The earliest colonization of Europe: The short chronology revisited. Antiquity, 70, 535–542.Google Scholar
  18. Domínguez-Rodrigo, M. (2002). Hunting and scavenging by early humans: The state of the debate. Journal of World Prehistory, 16, 1–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Domínguez-Rodrigo, M., Pickering, T. R., Semaw, S., & Rogers, M. J. (2005). Cutmarked bones from Pliocene archaeological sites at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia: Implications for the function of the world’s oldest stone tools. Journal of Human Evolution, 48, 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gamble, C. (1986). The Palaeolithic settlement of Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Gaudzinski, S. (1995). Wallertheim revisited. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22, 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gaudzinski, S. (1996). On bovid assemblages and their consequences for the knowledge of subsistence patterns in the Middle Palaeolithic. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society, 62, 19–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaudzinski, S. (2004a). Subsistence patterns of early Pleistocene hominids in the Levant – taphonomic evidence from the ‘Ubeidiya formation. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaudzinski, S., & Roebroeks, W. (2000). Adults only: Reindeer hunting at the middle Palaeolithic site Salzgitter Lebenstedt, Northern Germany. Journal of Human Evolution, 38, 497–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldman, T., & Hovers, E. (2009). Methodological issues in the study of Oldowan raw material selection: Insights from A. L. 894 (Hadar, Ethiopia). In E. Hovers & D. R. Braun (Eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to the oldowan (pp. 71–84). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Isaac, G. L. (1967). Toward the interpretation of occupational debris: Some experiments and observations. Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, 37, 31–57.Google Scholar
  27. Isaac, G. L. (1983). Bones in connection: Competing explanations for the juxtaposition of Early Pleistocene artifacts and faunal remains. In J. Clutton-Brock & C. Grigson (Eds.), Animals in archaeology (pp. 3–19). British Archaeological Reports International Series, Vol. 163. Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
  28. Leakey, M. D. (1971). Olduvai Gorge, excavations in beds I and II, 1960–1963. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Parfitt, S. A., Berendregt, R. W., Breda, M., Candy, I., Collins, M. J., Cope, G. R., et al. (2005). The earliest record of human activity in northern Europe. Nature, 438, 1008–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Potts, R. (1988). Early hominid activities at Olduvai Gorge. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  31. Potts, R., & Shipman, P. (1981). Cut marks made by stone tools on bones from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature, 291, 577–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roebroeks, W. (2001). Hominid behaviour and the first occupation of Europe. Journal of Human Evolution, 41, 437–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schick, K. D. (1987). Modeling the formation of early stone age artifact concentrations. Journal of Human Evolution, 16, 789–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schiffer, M. B. (1972). Archaeological context and systemic context. American Antiquity, 37, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schiffer, M. B. (1976). Behavioral archaeology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Schiffer, M. B. (1983). Towards the identification of formation processes. American Antiquity, 48, 675–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schiffer, M. B. (1987). Formation processes of the archaeological record. Albuqerque: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  38. Speth, J. D. (1987). Early hominid subsistence strategies in seasonal habitats. Journal of Archaeological Science, 14, 13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Speth, J. D. (2004). Hunting pressure, subsistence intensification, and demographic change in the levantine late Middle Paleolithic. In N. Goren-Inbar & J. D. Speth (Eds.), Human paleoecology in the Levantine Corridor (pp. 149–166). Oxford: Oxbow Press.Google Scholar
  40. Speth, J. D., & Clark, J. L. (2006). Hunting and overhunting in the Levantine Late Middle Palaeolithic. Before Farming, 3, 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Speth, J. D., & Tchernov, E. (1998). The role of hunting and scavenging. Neandertal procurement strategies, new evidence from Kebara Cave (Israel). In T. Akazawa, K. Aoki, & O. Bar-Yosef (Eds.), Neandertals and modern humans in Western Asia (pp. 223–239). London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  42. Speth, J. D., & Tchernov, E. (2001). Neandertal hunting and meat-processing in the Near-East: Evidence from Kebara cave 2001. In C. B. Stanford & H. T. Bunn (Eds.), Meat-eating and human evolution (pp. 52–72). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Thieme, H. (1996). Altpaläolithische Wurfspeere aus Schöningen, Niedersachsen-ein Vorbericht. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt, 26, 377–393.Google Scholar
  44. Thieme, H. (1997). Lower Palaeolithic hunting spears from Schöningen, Germany. Nature, 358, 807–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Washburn, S., & Lancaster, C. S. (1968). The evolution of hunting. In R. B. Lee & I. DeVore (Eds.), Man the hunter (pp. 293–303). Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  46. Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S. (2005). Susistenzstrategien Fruhpleistozaner Hominiden in Eurasien. Monographien, Band 61. Mianz.Google Scholar
  47. Parfitt, S. A., & Roberts, M. B. (1999). Human modification of faunal remains. In M. B. Roberts & S. A. Parfit, Boxgrove: A Middle Pleistocene hominid site at Eartham Quarry, Boxgrove, West Sussex (pp. 395–415). English Heritage Archaeological Report 17: London.Google Scholar
  48. Roebroeks, W., & van Kolfschoten, T. (1994). The earliest occupation of Europe: A short chronology. Antiquity, 68, 489–503.Google Scholar
  49. Bermudez de Castro, J. M., Carbonell, E., Cáceres, I., Diez, J. C., Fernández-Jalvo, Y., Mosquera, M., et al. (1999). The TD6 (Aurora stratum) hominid site. Final remarks and new questions. Journal of Human Evolution, 37, 695–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Aiello, L. C., & Wheeler, P. (1995). The expensive tissue hypothesis: The brain and the digestive system in human and primate evolution. Current Anthropology, 36, 199–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Earth Sciences and National Natural History Collections, Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of JerusalemGivat Ram JerusalemIsrael
  2. 2.Palaeolithic Research UnitRömisch-Germanisches ZentralmuseumNeuwiedGermany
  3. 3.Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Pre- and Protohistoric ArchaeologyNeuwiedGermany
  4. 4.Institute of Archaeology, The Hebrew University of JerusalemMt. Scopus JerusalemIsrael

Personalised recommendations