String Languages

  • Marcus KrachtEmail author
Part of the Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy book series (SLAP, volume 89)


This chapter provides an introduction to string grammars as needed in the subsequent chapters. It is shown how string grammars define constituents and how this reflects on constituent substitution and, ultimately, constituency tests. Syntactic categories are being introduced and it is shown that for the most part one can leave them implicit. They are then not present in the grammar as pieces of notation but as conditions on application of rules. The chapter also discusses adjunction grammars, which exist in the form of string adjunction grammars and tree adjunction grammars. These grammars allow to generate languages without intermediate structures. In their jargon of this book, for adjunction grammars the language generated in the wide sense coincides with the language generated in the narrow sense.


Grammar Category Substitution Adjunction Principle of Preservation 


  1. Harrison, Michael A. 1978. Introduction to Formal Language Theory. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  2. Kornai, András. 2007. Mathematical Linguistics. Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  3. Korpela, Jukka. 2006. Unicode Explained. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.Google Scholar
  4. Kracht, Marcus. 2003. Mathematics of Language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lamb, Sydney M. 1966. Outline of Stratificational Grammar. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Lasersohn, Peter. 2009. “Compositional Interpretation in Which the Meanings of Complex Expressions Are Not Computable from the Meanings of Their Parts.” In Theory and Evidence in Semantics, edited by John Nerbonne and Erhard Hinrichs, 133–58. Stanford, CA: CSLI.Google Scholar
  7. Matthews, Peter H. 1978. Inflectional Morphology. An Introduction to the Theory of Word-Structure. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Steedman, Mark. 1990. “Gapping as Constituent Coordination.” Linguistics and Philosophy 13:207–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Svenonius, Peter. 2007. “Paradigrn Generation and Northern Sámi Stems.” In The Basis of Inflectional Identity, edited by Asaf Bachrach and Andrew Nevins. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Tomalin, Marcus. 2006. Linguistics and the Formal Sciences. The Origins of Generative Grammar. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations