Advertisement

The Pesticide Paradigm

  • Robert L. Zimdahl
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Agriculture book series (BRIEFSAGRO)

Abstract

The use of natural and synthetic chemicals as pesticides is an ancient agricultural practice. In 1000 B.C., Homer wrote of the pest averting sulphur. In 470 B.C., Democritus suggested that residues from the production of olive oil could be used to cure blight. The harmful effects of salt were mentioned by Xenophon in 400 B.C. and the Romans sowed their enemies’ fields with salt as continuing punishment (Smith and Secoy 1976). Mercurous chloride was first used as a fungicide for seed treatment in 1755 and Bordeaux mixture (copper sulphate, lime and water) was discovered in France in 1865. It was used to control downy mildew on grapevines. Selective control of weeds began around 1900 in France, Germany and the US using sulphates and nitrates of heavy metals. The first synthetic organic chemicals were introduced in 1932 (2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol for weed control) and in 1934 the first patent on dithiocarbamates as fungicides was granted.

Keywords

Pest Control Downy Mildew Pest Population Copper Sulphate Bordeaux Mixture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alexander M (1965) Persistence and biological reactions of pesticides in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 29, 1Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2010) Vertical farming-does it really stack up? Econ Technol Q Dec 11:15–16Google Scholar
  3. Atreya, KBK Sitauala, Johnson FH, and Bajracharya RM (2011) Continuing issues in the limitations of pesticide use in developing countries. J Agric Environ Ethics 24:49–62Google Scholar
  4. Chem. Eng. News. Plant, AF Sept. 22 and Oct. 20, (1975) Editorials, and Letters to the Editor. Byer, AJ Dec. 15, ’75; Stemmie, JT Dec. 22, ’75; Weinhouse, S Jan 26, ’76; Blair, EH Feb 9, ’76; Pike, EA and Walker, W Feb 23, ’76 (2Itrs); Wagner, BM, Brame Jr, EG, Dole, GF and Wald,G Mar. 15, ’76 (4 Itrs); Scribner, JD Apr. 19, ’76; Kolin, P May 10, ’76; Vallaire, C June 14, ’76, Weinhouse, S July 5, ’76Google Scholar
  5. Kahn H, Brown W, Martel L (1961) The next 200 years: a scenario for america and the world. W. Morrow and Co. Inc., New York, p 241Google Scholar
  6. King ML Jr (1967) Beyond vietnam: a time to break silence: declaration of independence from the war in vietnam. April 1967, Manhattan’s Riverside ChurchGoogle Scholar
  7. Kuhn TS (1970) The structure of scientific revolutions, 2nd edn. International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. II, No. 2, 210 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Laski H (1930) Diderot: Homage to a genius. Harper’s Mag 162:597–606Google Scholar
  9. Levitt SD, Dubner SJ (2009) Freakonomics. a rouge economist explores the hidden side of everything. Harper Perennial, New York, 315 ppGoogle Scholar
  10. Ling-Yee G (1975) Chem Eng News. Nov. 3, 1975Google Scholar
  11. Lowrance WW (1976) Of acceptable risk. Science and the determination of safety. W. Kaufmann, Inc., Los Altos, p 180Google Scholar
  12. Smith AE, Secoy DM (1976) Salt as a pesticide, manure, and seed steep. Agric History 50:506–516Google Scholar
  13. Tillich P (1951) Systematic theology, vol I. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 300 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. Zimdahl RL (1978) The pesticide paradigm Bull Entomol Soc Am 24:357–360Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert L. Zimdahl 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest ManagementColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations