Advertisement

Integrated Agri-Aquaculture Systems

  • Ariel D. ZajdbandEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 7)

Abstract

The integration of aquaculture within wider farming systems has been promoted as a way of increasing food production, conserving the environment and ensuring food security. Such systems are known as integrated agri-aquaculture systems (IAAS), which are characterized by their capacity to generate synergies between farm enterprises. Agri-aquaculture systems are generally family farming systems, comprised of three major sub-systems: aquaculture, agriculture and household. In this chapter, most of the common positive interactions of agri-aquaculture systems are reviewed, such as: (1) the use of animal manure as pond fertilizer, (2) the use of crop by-products as supplementary feed for fish, (3) the use of pond sediments as terrestrial crop fertilizers, and (4) the use of aquaculture wastewater for crop irrigation. Other indirect positive interactions between farm components on agri-aquaculture systems are also reviewed, such as the control of pests and weeds by fish in rice fields, the control of malaria, and the use of on-farm substrates for periphyton growth. This review shows how synergies are usually tested through controlled experiments that do not provide sound information about the behavior of the system as a whole. When integrated farming systems are analyzed, trade-off becomes evident among farming components, and therefore the opportunities for positive interactions that they generate. These trade-offs make difficult the inclusion of different kinds of synergies within the same farm. Approaches for the analysis of agri-aquaculture systems must involve broader scales, and as such, resilience theory provides a useful framework for further studies.

Keywords

Integrated farming Fish culture Synergies Malaria 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank Laura J. Hess for her invaluable help, as well as the two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments.

References

  1. Adger NW (2000) Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Prog Hum Geogr 24(3):347–364Google Scholar
  2. Aditya G, Pal S, Saha GK (2010) An assessment of fish species assemblages in rice fields in West Bengal, India: implications for management. J Appl Icthtyol 26:535–539. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0426.2010.01460.xGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed N, Garnett ST (2010) Sustainability of freshwater prawn farming in rice fields in southwest Bangladesh. J Sustain Agric 34:659–679. doi:10.1080/10440046.2010.493397Google Scholar
  4. Ahmed M, Lorica MH (2002) Improving developing country food security through aquaculture development – lessons from Asia. Food Policy 27(2):125–141. doi:10.1016/S0306-9192(02)00007-6Google Scholar
  5. Ahmed N, Demaine H, Muir JF (2008a) Freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh: history, present status and future prospects. Aquacult Res 39(8):806–819. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01931.xGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmed N, Brown JH, Muir JF (2008b) Freshwater prawn framing in gher systems in southwest Bangladesh. Aquac Econ Manage 12:207–223Google Scholar
  7. Ahmed N, Ellison EH, Muir JF (2010) Rice fields to prawn farms: a blue revolution in southwest Bangladesh? Aquac Int 18:555–574. doi:10.1007/s10499-009-9276-0Google Scholar
  8. Al-Jaloud AA, Hussian G, Karimulla S, Al-Hamidi AH (1996) Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on yield and yield components of two rapeseed cultivars. Agric Water Manage 30(1):57–68Google Scholar
  9. Altieri MA (1999) The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 74:19–31Google Scholar
  10. Altieri MA (2002) Agroecology: the science of natural resource management for poor farmers in marginal environments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 1971:1–24Google Scholar
  11. Amilhat E, Lorenzen K, Morales EJ, Yakupitiyage A, Little DC (2009) Fisheries production in Southeast Asian farmer-managed aquatic systems (FMAS). I. Characterisation of systems. Aquaculture 296:219–226. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.08.014Google Scholar
  12. Arthur RI, Lorenzen K, Homekingkeo P, Sidavong K, Sengvilaikham B, Garaway CJ (2010) Assessing impacts of introduced aquaculture species on native fish communities: Nile tilapia and major carps in SE Asian freshwaters. Aquaculture 299:81–88. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.11.022Google Scholar
  13. Avnimelech Y, Ritvo G (2003) Shrimp and fish pond soils: processes and management. Aquaculture 220:549–567Google Scholar
  14. Avnimelech Y, Verdegem MCJ, Kurup M, Keshavanath P (2008) Sustainable land-based aquaculture: rational utilization of water, land and feed resources. Mediterr Aquac J 1(1):45–55Google Scholar
  15. Azim ME, Wahab MA, van Dam AA, Beveridge MCM, Verdegem MCJ (2001) The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus). Aquac Res 32(3):209–216. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.2001.00549.xGoogle Scholar
  16. Azim ME, Wahab MA, Verdegem MCJ, van Dam AA, van Rooij JM, Beveridge MCM (2002) The effects of artificial substrates on freshwater pond productivity and water quality and the implications for periphyton-based aquaculture. Aquat Living Resour 15:231–241Google Scholar
  17. Azim ME, Verdegem MCJ, Mantigh I, van Dam AA, Beveridge MCM (2003) Ingestion and utilization of periphyton grown on artificial substrates by Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquac Res 34:85–92Google Scholar
  18. Bailey C (2008) Human dimensions of an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. In: Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (eds) Building an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. FAO, Rome, pp 37–46Google Scholar
  19. Bairagi A, Ghosh KS, Sen SK, Ray AK (2002) Duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal as a source of feedstuff in formulated diets for rohu (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings after fermentation with a fish intestinal bacterium. Bioresour Technol 85:17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Belton B, Little DC (2008) The development of aquaculture in central Thailand: domestic demand versus export-led production. J Agrarian Change 8(1):123–143Google Scholar
  21. Berg H (2001) Pesticide use in rice and rice–fish farms in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Crop Prot 20:897–905Google Scholar
  22. Berg H (2002) Rice monoculture and integrated rice-fish farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam-economic and ecological considerations. Ecol Econ 41:95–107Google Scholar
  23. Bergquist DA (2007) Sustainability and local people’s participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Environ Manage 40:787–802. doi:10.1007/s00267-006-0108-yPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bernal MP, Alburquerque JA, Moral R (2009) Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment: a review. Bioresour Technol 100(22):5444–5453. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhakta JN, Sarkar D, Jana S, Jana BB (2004) Optimizing fertilizer dose for rearing stage production of carps under polyculture. Aquaculture 239:125–139. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2004.03.006Google Scholar
  26. Bolognesi Da Silva L, Barcellos LJG, Quevedo RM, de Souza SMG, Kreutz LC, Ritter F, Finco JA, Bedin AC (2006) Alternative species for traditional carp polyculture in southern South America: initial growing period. Aquaculture 255(1–4):417–428. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.12.024Google Scholar
  27. Bondad-Reantaso MG, Bueno P, Demaine H, Pongthanapanich T (2009) Development of an indicator system for measuring the contribution of small-scale aquaculture to sustainable rural development. In: Bondad-Reantaso MG, Prein M (eds) Measuring the contribution of small-scale aquaculture: an assessment. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 534. FAO, Rome, pp 161–179Google Scholar
  28. Bosma RH (2007) Using fuzzy logic models to reveal farmers’ motives to integrate livestock, fish, and crops. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  29. Bosma RH, Phong LT, Kaymak U, Van Den Berg J, Udo HMJ, Van Mensvoort MEF, Tri LQ (2006) Assessing and modelling farmers’ decision making on integrating aquaculture into agriculture in the Mekong Delta. NJAS 53(3–4):281–300Google Scholar
  30. Bosma RH, Udo HMJ, Verreth JAJ, Visser LE, Nam CQ (2007) Agriculture diversification in the Mekong Delta: farmers’ motives and contributions to livelihoods. Asian J Agric Dev 2(1–2): 49–66Google Scholar
  31. Bostock J, McAndrew B, Richards R, Jauncey K, Telfer T, Lorenzen K, Little D, Ross L, Handisyde N, Gatward I, Corner R (2010) Aquaculture: global status and trends. Phil Trans R Soc B 365:2897–2912. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Boyd CE (1995) Bottom soils, sediment, and pond aquaculture. Chapman & Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Boyd CE, Bowman JR (1997) Pond bottom soils. In: Egna HS, Boyd CE (eds) Dynamics of pond aquaculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 135–162Google Scholar
  34. Breine JJ, Teugels GG, Podoor N, Ollevier F (1996) First data on rabbit dung as a water fertilizer in tropical fish culture and its effect on the growth of Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Hydrobiologia 321(2):101–107. doi:10.1007/BF00023167Google Scholar
  35. Brookfield H, Parsons H (2007) Family farms: survival and prospect: a worldwide analysis. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. Brummett RE (1999) Integrated aquaculture in sub-Saharan Africa. Environ Dev Sustain 1:315–321Google Scholar
  37. Brummett RE, Williams MJ (2000) The evolution of aquaculture in African rural and economic development. Ecol Econ 33(2):193–203. doi:10.1016/S0921-8009(99)00142-1Google Scholar
  38. Casaca JM (2008) Policultivos de peixes integrados à produção vegetal: avaliação econômica e sócio ambiental (peixe-verde). Ph.D. thesis, UNESP, JaboticabalGoogle Scholar
  39. Cassman KG, Wood S, Choo PS, Cooper HD, Devendra C, Dixon J, Gaskell J, Kahn S, Lal SR, Lipper L, Pretty J, Primavera J, Ramankutty N, Viglizzo E, Wiebe K (2005) Cultivated systems. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) Ecosystems and human well-being: current state and trends, vol 1, Millennium ecosystem assessment series. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 745–794Google Scholar
  40. Cavalett O, Queiroz JF, Ortega E (2006) Emergy assessment of integrated production systems of grains, pig and fish in small farms in the South Brazil. Ecol Modell 193:205–224Google Scholar
  41. Chikafumbwa FJKT, Costa-Pierce BA, Jamu DM, Kadongola WK, Balarin JD (1993) Investigations on the use of on-farm resources as pond inputs to culture Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis shiranus on smallholder farms in rural Malawi. Aquaculture 117:261–271Google Scholar
  42. Chopin T, Troell M, Reid GK, Knowler D, Robinson SMC, Neori A, Buschmann AH, Pang SJ, Fang J (2010) Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture. In: Advancing the aquaculture Agenda: workshop proceedings. OECD, Paris, pp 195–218, http://www.sourceoecd.org/agriculture/9789264088719
  43. Coates D (1984) A survey of the fish fauna of Sudanese irrigation systems with reference to the use of fishes in the management of ecological problems (the control of aquatic weeds, malaria and infective schistosomiasis). Fish Manage 15(3):81–96Google Scholar
  44. Conway G (1987) The properties of agroecosystems. Agric Syst 24:95–117Google Scholar
  45. Costa-Pierce BA (1987) Initial feasibility of integrated aquaculture on lava soils in Hawaii. Aquacult Eng 6:171–182Google Scholar
  46. Costa-Pierce BA (2002) Ecological aquaculture: the evolution of the blue revolution. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Dalsgaard JPT, Oficial RT (1997) A quantitative approach for assessing the productive performance and ecological contributions of smallholder farms. Agric Syst 55(4):503–533Google Scholar
  48. Dalsgaard JPT, Lightfoot C, Christensen B (1995) Towards quantification of ecological sustainability in farming systems analysis. Ecol Eng 4:181–189Google Scholar
  49. Das SK, Jana BB (2003) Pond fertilization regimen: state of the art. J Appl Aquac 13(1–2):35–66Google Scholar
  50. Dashu N, Jianhuo W (1996) Material cycles and economic returns in ricefish ecosystem. In: Mackay KT (ed) Rice-fish culture in China. IDRC, Ottawa, pp 177–182Google Scholar
  51. Datta A, Nayak DR, Sinhababu DP, Adhya TK (2009) Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from an integrated rainfed rice-fish farming system of Eastern India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129(1–3):228–237. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2008.09.003Google Scholar
  52. De Silva SS (1993) Supplementary feeding in semi-intensive aquaculture systems. In: New MB, Tacon AGJ, Csavas I (eds) Farm-made aquafeeds. Proceedings of the FAO/AADCP regional expert consultation on farm-made aquafeeds, 14–18 Dec 1992, Bangkok. FAO-RAPA/AADCP, Bangkok, pp 24–60Google Scholar
  53. De Silva SS, Davy FB (2010) Success stories in Asian aquaculture. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  54. De Silva SS, Davy FB, Phillips MJ (2010) Synthesis and lessons learned. In: De Silva SS, Davy FB (eds) Success stories in Asian aquaculture. Springer, Ottawa, pp 187–199Google Scholar
  55. De Silva SS, Nguyen TTT, Turchini GM, Amarasinghe US, Abery NW (2009) Alien species in aquaculture and biodiversity: a paradox in food production. Ambio 38(1):24–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Delgado CL, Wada N, Rosegrant MW, Meijer S, Ahmed M (2003) Fish to 2020: supply and demand in changing global markets. IFPRI/World Fish Center, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  57. Demaine H (2009) Rural aquaculture: reflections ten years on. In: Bondad-Reantaso MG, Prein M (eds) Measuring the contribution of small-scale aquaculture: an assessment. FAO, Rome, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  58. Devendra C, Thomas D (2002a) Crop–animal interactions in mixed farming systems in Asia. Agric Syst 71:27–40Google Scholar
  59. Devendra C, Thomas D (2002b) Smallholder farming systems in Asia. Agric Syst 71:17–25Google Scholar
  60. Dey MM, Kambewa P, Prein M, Jamu D, Paraguas FJ, Pemsl DE, Briones RM (2007) WorldFish centre- impact of the development and dissemination of integrated aquaculture–agriculture technologies in Malawi. In: Waibel H, Zilberman D (eds) International research on natural resource management: advances in impact assessments. FAO/CAB International, Wallingford, pp 118–146Google Scholar
  61. Dey MM, Paraguas FJ, Kambewa P, Pemsl DE (2010) The impact of integrated aquaculture–agriculture on small-scale farms in Southern Malawi. Agric Econ 41:67–79. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2009.00426.xGoogle Scholar
  62. Diana JS (2009) Aquaculture production and biodiversity conservation. Bioscience 59(1):27–38. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.1.7Google Scholar
  63. Diana JS, Szyper JP, Batterson TR, Boyd CE, Piedrahita RH (1997) Water quality in ponds. In: Egna HS, Boyd CE (eds) Dynamics of pond aquaculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 53–71Google Scholar
  64. Dongmeza E, Steinbronn S, Francis G, Focken U, Becker K (2009) Investigations on the nutrient and antinutrient content of typical plants used as fish feed in small scale aquaculture in the mountainous regions of Northern Vietnam. Anim Feed Sci Technol 149:162–178Google Scholar
  65. Dongmeza E, Francis G, Steinbronn S, Focken U, Becker K (2010) Investigations on the digestibility and metabolizability of the major nutrients and energy of maize leaves and barnyard grass in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquac Nutr 16(3):313–326. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00667.xGoogle Scholar
  66. Duc NM (2008) Farmers’ satisfaction with aquaculture – a logistic model in Vietnam. Ecol Econ 68:525–531. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.05.009Google Scholar
  67. Duc NM (2009) Economic contribution of fish culture to farm income in Southeast Vietnam. Aquac Int 17:15–29. doi:10.1007/s10499-008-9176-8Google Scholar
  68. Edwards P (1993) Environmental issues in integrated agriculture-aquaculture and wastewater-fed fish culture system. In: Pullin RSV, Rosenthal H, Maclean JL (eds) Environment and aquaculture in developing countries. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 31. ICLARM, Manila, pp 139–170Google Scholar
  69. Edwards P (1998) A systems approach for the promotion of integrated aquaculture. Aquac Econ Manage 2(1):1–12Google Scholar
  70. Edwards P (1999) Towards increased impact of rural aquaculture. Discussion paper prepared for the first meeting of the APFIC ad-hoc working group of experts on rural aquaculture. FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP), BangkokGoogle Scholar
  71. Edwards P (2008) From integrated carp polyculture to intensive monoculture in the Pearl River Delta, South China. Aquac Asia 13(2):3–7Google Scholar
  72. Edwards P, Pullin RSV, Gartner JA (1988) Research and education for the development of integrated crop-livestock-fish farming systems in the tropics. ICLARM studies and reviews 16. ICLARM, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  73. Ellis EC, Wang SM (1997) Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 61:177–193Google Scholar
  74. Fagbenro O (1998) Apparent digestibility of legume seeds by Nile tilapia. Aquac Int 6:83–87Google Scholar
  75. Fagbenro O (1999) Apparent digestibility of various cereal grain by-products in common carp diets. Aquac Int 7:277–281Google Scholar
  76. FAO (1997) Expert consultation on small-scale rural aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Report 458. FAO Committee on Fisheries, Rome, 28–31 May 1996Google Scholar
  77. FAO (2003) Report of the second session of the sub-committee on aquaculture. FAO Fisheries Report 716. FAO Committee on Fisheries, Trondheim, 7–11 Aug 2003Google Scholar
  78. FAO (2007a) The role of aquaculture in sustainable development. Thirty-fourth Session, 17–24 Nov. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  79. FAO (2007b) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  80. FAO (2008) Glossary of aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  81. FAO (2009a) Foods security and agricultural mitigation in developing countries: options for capturing synergies. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  82. FAO (2009b) The state of food insecurity in the world 2009: economic crises – impacts and lessons learned. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  83. FAO (2009c) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  84. FAO/IIRR/WorldFish Center (2001) Integrated agriculture-aquaculture: a primer. FAO Fisheries Report 407, RomeGoogle Scholar
  85. Fedoroff NV, Battisti DS, Beachy RN, Cooper PJM, Fischhoff DA, Hodges CN, Knauf VC, Lobell D, Mazur BJ, Molden D, Reynolds MP, Ronald PC, Rosegrant MW, Sanchez PA, Vonshak A, Zhu J-K (2010) Radically rethinking agriculture for the 21st century. Science 327(5967): 833–834. doi:10.1126/science.1186834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Fernando CH, Halwart M (2000) Possibilities for the integration of fish farming into irrigation systems. Fish Manage Ecol 7:45–54Google Scholar
  87. Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199(3–4):197–227. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00526-9Google Scholar
  88. Frei M, Becker K (2005) Integrated rice-fish culture: coupled production saves resources. Nat Resour Forum 29:135–143Google Scholar
  89. Frei MMA, Razzak MM, Hossain M, Oehme SD, Becker K (2007a) Performance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) in integrated ricefish culture in Bangladesh. Aquaculture 262:250–259. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.11.019Google Scholar
  90. Frei M, Khan MAM, Razzak MA, Hossain MM, Dewan S, Becker K (2007b) Effects of a mixed culture of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), on terrestrial arthropod population, benthic fauna, and weed biomass in rice fields in Bangladesh. Biol Control 41:207–213. doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2007.02.001Google Scholar
  91. Gabriel UU, Akinrotimi OA, Bekibele DO, Onunkwo DN, Anyanwu PE (2007) Locally produced fish feed: potentials for aquaculture development in subsaharan Africa. Afr J Agric Res 2(7):287–295Google Scholar
  92. Garg SK, Bhatnagar A (2000) Effect of fertilization frequency on pond productivity and fish biomass in still water ponds stocked with Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.). Aquac Res 31(5): 409–414. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.2000.00422.xGoogle Scholar
  93. Garg SK, Kalla A, Bhatnagar A (2002) Evaluation of raw and hydrothermically processed leguminous seeds as supplementary feed for the growth of two Indian major carp species. Aquac Res 33(3):151–163Google Scholar
  94. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(812):812–818. doi:10.1126/science.1185383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Gomiero T, Giampietro M, Bukens SGF, Paoletti MG (1997) Biodiversity use and technical performance of freshwater fish aquaculture in different socioeconomic contexts: China and Italy. Agric Ecosyst Environ 2:169–185Google Scholar
  96. Goyal S, Dhull SK, Kapoor KK (2005) Chemical and biological changes during composting of different organic wastes and assessment of compost maturity. Bioresour Technol 96(14): 1584–1591. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.12.012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Gozlan RE (2008) Introduction of non-native freshwater fish: is it all bad? Fish Fish 9:106–115Google Scholar
  98. Gozlan RE, Britton JR, Cowx I, Copp GH (2010) Current knowledge on non-native freshwater fish introductions. J Fish Biol 76:751–786. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02566.xGoogle Scholar
  99. Gunderson LH, Holling CS (2002) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  100. Guo JY, Bradshaw AD (1993) The flow of nutrient and energy through a Chinese farming system. J Appl Ecol 30:86–94Google Scholar
  101. Gurung TB, Wagle SK (2005) Revisiting underlying ecological principles of rice-fish integrated farming for environmental, economical and social benefits. Our Nat 3:1–12Google Scholar
  102. Halwart M, Gupta MV (eds) (2004) Culture of fish in rice fields. FAO/The WorldFish Center, RomeGoogle Scholar
  103. Halwart M, Borlinghaus M, Kaule G (1996) Activity pattern of fish in rice fields. Aquaculture 145:159–170Google Scholar
  104. Hambrey J (2004) A brief review of small-scale aquaculture in Asia, its potential for poverty alleviation, with a consideration of the merits of investment and specialization. In: Halwart M, Moehl JF (eds) Regional technical expert workshop on cage culture in Africa. Fisheries proceedings 6. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  105. Hambrey J, Edwards P, Belton B (2008) An ecosystem approach to freshwater aquaculture: a global review. In: Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (eds) Building an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings 14. FAO/Universitat de les Illes Balears Experts Workshop, 7–11 May 2007, Mallorca Spain. FAO, Rome, pp 117–221Google Scholar
  106. Hassan S, Edwards P, Little DC (1997) Comparison of Tilapia monoculture and carp polyculture in fertilized earthen ponds. J World Aquac Soc 28(3):268–274Google Scholar
  107. Hazell P, Wood S (2008) Drivers of change in global agriculture. Phil Trans R Soc B 363:495–515. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Herrero M, Thornton PK, Notenbaert AM, Wood S, Msangi S, Freeman HA, Bossio D, Dixon J, Peters M, van de Steeg J, Lynam J, Parthasarathy Rao P, Mcmillan S, Gerard B, McDermott J, Serand C, Rosegrant M (2010) Smart investments in sustainable food production: revisiting mixed crop-livestock systems. Science 327:822–825. doi:10.1126/science.1183725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hishamunda N, Ridler NB (2002) Macro policies to promote sustainable commercial aquaculture. Aquac Int 10:491–505Google Scholar
  110. Hishamunda N, Ridler NB (2006) Farming fish for profits: a small step towards food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy 31:401–414Google Scholar
  111. Hishamunda N, Jolly CM, Engle C (1998) Evaluation of small-scale aquaculture with intra-rural household trade as an alternative enterprise for limited resource farmers: the case of Rwanda. Food Policy 23(2):143–154Google Scholar
  112. Holling CS (2001) Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4:390–405. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0101-5Google Scholar
  113. Horstkotte-Wesseler G (1999) Socioeconomics of rice-aquaculture and IPM in the Philippines: synergies, potential and problems. ICLARM Technical Report 57. ICLARM, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  114. Hossain MA, Islam MS (2006) Optimization of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) in carp polyculture in Bangladesh. Aquac Res 37:994–1000. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2006.01518.xGoogle Scholar
  115. Hossain MA, Focken U, Becker K (2001) Evaluation of an unconventional legume seed, Sesbania aculeata, as a dietary protein source for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Aquaculture 198:129–140Google Scholar
  116. Howard AFV, Omlin FX (2008) Abandoning small-scale fish farming in western Kenya leads to higher malaria vector abundance. Acta Trop 105:67–73. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2007.09.010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Hussain G, Al-Jaloud AA (1995) Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on water use efficiency of wheat in Saudi Arabia. Agric Water Manage 27:143–153Google Scholar
  118. Hussain G, Al-Jaloud AA (1998) Effect of irrigation and nitrogen on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of barley in Saudi Arabia. Agric Water Manage 36:55–70Google Scholar
  119. IAASTD (2009) Agriculture as a crossroads: global report. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  120. Ijumba JN, Lindsay SW (2001) Impact of irrigation on malaria in Africa: paddies paradox. Med Vet Entomol 15:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Irz X, Stevenson JR, Tanoy A, Villarante P, Morissens P (2007) The equity and poverty impacts of aquaculture: insights from the Philippines. Dev Policy Rev 25(4):495–516Google Scholar
  122. Jewel MAS, Affan MA, Khan S (2003) Fish mortality due to cyanobacterial bloom in an aquaculture pond in Bangladesh. Pak J Biol Sci 6(12):1046–1050Google Scholar
  123. Jianguo W, Dashu N (1995) A comparative study of the ability of fish to catch mosquito larva. In: Mackay KT (ed) Rice-fish culture in China. IDRC, Ottawa, pp 217–222Google Scholar
  124. Kadir A, Kundu RS, Milstein A, Wahab MA (2006) Effects of silver carp and small indigenous species on pond ecology and carp polycultures in Bangladesh. Aquaculture 261(3):1065–1076. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.09.010Google Scholar
  125. Kadir A, Wahab MA, Milstein A, Hossain MA, Seraji MTI (2007) Effects of silver carp and the small indigenous fish mola Amblypharyngodon mola and punti Puntius sophore on fish polyculture production. Aquaculture 273:520–531. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2007.07.012Google Scholar
  126. Kaggwa R, van Dam A, Balirwa J, Kansiime F, Denny P (2008) Increasing fish production from wetlands at Lake Victoria, Uganda using organically manured seasonal wetland fish ponds. Wetlands Ecol Manage 17(3):257–277. doi:10.1007/s11273-008-9105-7Google Scholar
  127. Kalita P, Mukhopadhyay PK, Mukherjee AK (2007) Evaluation of the nutritional quality of four unexplored aquatic weeds from northeast India for the formulation of cost-effective fish feeds. Food Chem 103:204–209. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.007Google Scholar
  128. Karapanagiotidis IT, Yakupitiyage A, Little DC, Bell MV, Mente E (2009) The nutritional value of lipids in various tropical aquatic animals from rice-fish farming systems in northeast Thailand. J Food Compos Anal 23(1):1–8. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.001Google Scholar
  129. Kautsky N, Berg H, Folke C, Larsson J, Troell M (1997) Ecological footprint for assessment of resource use and development limitations in shrimp and tilapia aquaculture. Aquac Res 28: 753–766Google Scholar
  130. Kawarazuka N (2010) The contribution of fish intake, aquaculture, and small-scale fisheries to improving nutrition: a literature review. The WorldFish Center Working Paper No. 2106. The WorldFish Center, PenangGoogle Scholar
  131. Keshavanath P, Shivanna, Gangadhara B (2006) Evaluation of sugarcane by-product pressmud as a manure in carp culture. Bioresour Technol 97:628–634. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2005.03.019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Kestemont P (1995) Different systems of carp production and their impact on the environment. Aquaculture 129:347–372Google Scholar
  133. Kipkemboi J, van Dam AA, Ikiara MM, Denny P (2007) Integration of smallholder wetland aquaculture–agriculture systems (fingerponds) into riparian farming systems on the shores of Lake Victoria, Kenya: socio-economics and livelihoods. Geogr J 173:257–272Google Scholar
  134. Knud-Hansen CF (1998) Pond fertilization: ecological approach and practical application. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Corvalis, 135 pGoogle Scholar
  135. Knud-Hansen CF, Batterson TR, McNabba CD, Harahat IS, Sumantadinata K, Eidman HM (1991) Nitrogen input, primary productivity and fish yield in fertilized freshwater ponds in Indonesia. Aquaculture 94:49–63Google Scholar
  136. Knudsen LG, Phuc PD, Hiep NT, Samuelsen H, Jensen PK, Dalsgaard A, Raschid-Sally L, Konradsen F (2008) The fear of awful smell: risk perceptions among farmers in Vietnam using wastewater and human excreta in agriculture. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 39(2):341–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Kumaresan A, Pathak KA, Bujarbaruah KM, Vinod K (2009) Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit. Trop Anim Health Prod 41:385–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Kunda M, Azim ME, Wahab MA, Dewan S, Roos N, Thilsted SH (2008) Potential of mixed culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and self-recruiting small species mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) in rotational ricefish/prawn culture systems in Bangladesh. Aquac Res 39(5):506–517. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01905.xGoogle Scholar
  139. Kunda M, Azim ME, Wahab MA, Dewan S, Majid MA, Thilsted SH (2009) Effects of including catla and tilapia in a freshwater prawnmola polyculture in a rotational ricefish culture systems. Aquac Res 40(9):1089–1098. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02204.xGoogle Scholar
  140. Lazard J, Baruthio A, Mathé S, Rey-Valette H, Chia E, Clément O, Aubin J, Morissens P, Mikolasek O, Legendre M, Levang P, Blancheton J-P, René F (2010) Aquaculture system diversity and sustainable development: fish farms and their representation. Aquat Living Resour 23:187–193. doi:10.1051/alr/2010018Google Scholar
  141. Lebel L, Lebel P, Garden P, Giap D, Khrutmuang S, Nakayama S (2008) Places, chains, and plates: governing transitions in the shrimp aquaculture production-consumption system. Globalizations 5(2):211–226. doi:10.1080/14747730802057589Google Scholar
  142. Lebel L, Mungkung R, Gheewala SH, Lebel P (2010) Innovation cycles, niches and sustainability in the shrimp aquaculture industry in Thailand. Environ Sci Policy 13(4):291–302. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2010.03.005Google Scholar
  143. Lewis D (1997) Rethinking aquaculture for resource-poor farmers: perspectives from Bangladesh. Food Policy 22(6):533–546Google Scholar
  144. Li D, Hu X (2009) Fish and its multiple human health effects in times of threat to sustainability and affordability: are there alternatives? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18(4):553–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Lightfoot C, Prein M, Lopez T (1994) Bioresource flow modeling with farmers. ILEIA Newsl 10(3):22–23Google Scholar
  146. Lin CK, Teichert-Coddington DR, Green BW, Veverica KL (1997) Fertilization regimes. In: Egna HS, Boyd CE (eds) Dynamics of pond aquaculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 73–107Google Scholar
  147. Little DC, Edwards P (2003) Integrated livestock-fish farming systems. FAO Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture Service Animal Production Service, RomeGoogle Scholar
  148. Little DC, Surintaraseree P, Innes-Taylor N (1996) Fish culture in rainfed rice fields of northeast Thailand. Aquaculture 140:295–321Google Scholar
  149. Little DC, Barman BK, Haque MM, Wahab MA (2007a) Descentralised Nile tilapia seed production. In: van der Zijpp AJ, Verreth JAJ, Le Quang Tri, van Mensvoort MEF, Bosma RH, Beveridge MCM (eds) Fishponds in farming systems. Proceedings of a symposium held in Can Tho City, 28–30 Apr 2006, organized by Can Tho University. Vietnam and Wageningen University, Wangeningen, pp 49–58Google Scholar
  150. Little DC, Karim M, Turongrouang D, Morales EJ, Murray FJ, Barman BK, Hague MM, Kundu N, Belton B, Faruque ASG, Azim ME, Islam FU, Pollock L, Verdegem MCJ, Young JA, Leschen W, Wahab MA (2007b) Livelihood impacts of ponds in Asia- opportunities and constraints. In: van der Zijpp AJ, Verreth JAJ, Le Quang Tri, van Mensvoort MEF, Bosma RH, Beveridge MCM (eds) Fishponds in farming systems. Proceedings of a symposium held in Can Tho City, 28–30 Apr 2006, organized by Can Tho University. Vietnam and Wageningen University, Wangeningen, pp 177–202Google Scholar
  151. Liu J, Cai Q (1998) Integrated aquaculture in Chinese lakes and paddy fields. Ecol Eng 11:49–59Google Scholar
  152. Lo CP (1996) Environmental impact on the development of agricultural technology in China: the case of the dike-pond (‘jitang’) system of integrated agriculture-aquaculture in the Zhujiang Delta of China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 60:183–195Google Scholar
  153. Lu J, Li X (2006) Review of ricefish-farming systems in China – one of the Globally Important Ingenious Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS). Aquaculture 260:106–113. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.05.059Google Scholar
  154. Mahimairaja S, Bolan NS, Hedley MJ (1995) Denitrification losses of N from fresh and composted manures. Soil Biol Biochem 27(9):1223–1225Google Scholar
  155. Markewich HA, Pell AN, Mbugua DM, Cherney DJR, van Es HM, Lehmann J, Robertson JB (2010) Effects of storage methods on chemical composition of manure and manure decomposition in soil in small-scale Kenyan systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 139(1–2):134–141. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.07.010Google Scholar
  156. Martinez-Espinosa M (1992) Rural aquaculture: from myth to reality. FAO Aquac Newsl 2:13–15Google Scholar
  157. Matson PA, Parton WJ, Power AG, Swift MJ (1997) Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Michielsens CGJ, Lorenzen K, Philips MJ, Gauthier R (2002) Asian carp farming systems: towards a typology and increased resource use efficiency. Aquac Res 33:403–413Google Scholar
  159. Middendorp AJ, Verreth JAJ (1986) The potential of and constraints to fish culture in integrated farming systems in the Lam Pao Irrigation Project, Northeast Thailand. Aquaculture 56(1): 63–78Google Scholar
  160. Milstein A (1992) Ecological aspects of fish species interactions in polyculture ponds. Hydrobiologia 231:177–186Google Scholar
  161. Milstein A, Kadir A, Wahab MA (2008) The effects of partially substituting Indian carps or adding silver carp on polycultures including small indigenous fish species (SIS). Aquaculture 279(1–4):92–98. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.04.009Google Scholar
  162. Milstein A, Wahab MA, Kadir A, Sagor MFH, Islam MA (2009) Effects of intervention in the water column and/or pond bottom through species composition on polycultures of large carps and small indigenous species. Aquaculture 286:246–253. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.09.036Google Scholar
  163. Mizanur R, Yakupitiyage A, Ranamukhaarachchi SL (2004) Agricultural use of fishpond sediment for environmental amelioration. Thammasat Int J Sci Technol 9(4):1–10Google Scholar
  164. Mohanty RK, Verma HN, Brahmanand PS (2004) Performance evaluation of ricefish integration system in rainfed medium land ecosystem. Aquaculture 230:125–135. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00423-XGoogle Scholar
  165. Moll HAJ (2005) Costs and benefits of livestock systems and the role of market and nonmarket relationships. Agricultural Economics 32:181–193Google Scholar
  166. Morales EJ, Little DC, Imminka A, Demaine H, Yakupitayage A, Amilhat E, Lorenzen K (2006) Project report: contribution of self-recruiting species produced in farmer-managed aquatic systems in rural areas of Southeast Asia to food consumption. J Food Compos Anal 19:759–760. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2006.03.003Google Scholar
  167. Muendo PN (2006) The role of fish ponds in the nutrient dynamics of mixed farming systems. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen University, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  168. Muir J (2005) Managing to harvest? Perspectives on the potential of aquaculture. Phil Trans R Soc B 360:191–218. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Murshed-e-Jahan K, Ahmed M, Belton B (2010) The impacts of aquaculture development on food security: lessons from Bangladesh. Aquac Res 41:481–495. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02337.xGoogle Scholar
  170. Nalim S (1994) The impact of fish in enhancing rice field ecosystems. In: Dela Cruz CR (ed) Role of fish in enhancing ricefield ecology and in integrated pest management. ICLARM conference proceedings 43. ICLARM, ManilaGoogle Scholar
  171. Naylor RL (2008) Managing food production systems for resilience. In: Chapin FS, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of natural resource stewardship: resilience-based management in a changing world. Springer, New York, pp 259–280Google Scholar
  172. Naylor RL, Burke M (2005) Aquaculture and ocean resources: raising tigers of the sea. Annu Rev Environ Resour 30:185–218Google Scholar
  173. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024. doi:10.1038/35016500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Naylor RL, Hardy RW, Bureau DP, Chiu A, Elliott M, Farrell AP, Forster I, Gatlin DM, Goldburg RJ, Hua K, Nichols PD (2009) Feeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(36):15103–15110. doi:10.1073/pnas.0905235106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Negesse T, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2009) Nutritive value of some non-conventional feed resources of Ethiopia determined by chemical analyses and an in vitro gas method. Anim Feed Sci Technol 154:204–217. doi:10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2009.09.010Google Scholar
  176. Ng WK, Wee KL (1989) The nutritive value of cassava leaf meal in pelleted feed for Nile tilapia. Aquaculture 83(1–2):45–58. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(89)90059-8Google Scholar
  177. Nhan DK, Milstein A, Verdegem MCJ, Verreth JAV (2006) Food inputs, water quality and nutrient accumulation in integrated pond systems: a multivariate approach. Aquaculture 261:160–173. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.07.015Google Scholar
  178. Nhan DK, Phong LT, Verdegem MJC, Duong LT, Bosma RH, Little DC (2007) Integrated freshwater aquaculture, crop and livestock production in the Mekong delta, Vietnam: determinants and the role of the pond. Agric Syst 94:445–458. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2006.11.017Google Scholar
  179. Nhan DK, Verdegem MCJ, Binh NT, Duong LT, Milstein A, Verreth JAJ (2008) Economic and nutrient discharge tradeoffs of excreta-fed aquaculture in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Agric Ecosyst Environ 124:259–269. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2007.10.005Google Scholar
  180. Nobre AM, Robertson-Andersson D, Neori A, Sankar K (2010) Ecologicaleconomic assessment of aquaculture options: comparison between abalone monoculture and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture of abalone and seaweeds. Aquaculture 306:116–126. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2010.06.002Google Scholar
  181. Ogunwande GA, Osunade JA, Adekalu KO, Ogunjimi LAO (2008) Nitrogen loss in chicken litter compost as affected by carbon to nitrogen ratio and turning frequency. Bioresour Technol 99(16):7495–7503. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.02.020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Pant J, Demaine H, Edwards P (2004) Assessment of the aquaculture subsystem in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems in Northeast Thailand. Aquac Res 35:289–298Google Scholar
  183. Pant J, Demaine H, Edwards P (2005) Bio-resource flow in integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems in a tropical monsoonal climate: a case study in Northeast Thailand. Agric Syst 83:203–219Google Scholar
  184. Parkinson R, Gibbs P, Burchett S, Misselbrook T (2004) Effect of turning regime and seasonal weather conditions on nitrogen and phosphorus losses during aerobic composting of cattle manure. Bioresour Technol 91:171–178. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00174-3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Perrings C (1998) Resilience in the dynamics of economy-environment systems. Environ Resour Econ 11(3–4):503–520Google Scholar
  186. Phan-Van M, Rosseau D, De Pauw N (2008) Effects of fish bioturbation on the vertical distribution of water temperature and dissolved oxygen in a fish culture- integrated waste stabilization pond system in Vietnam. Aquaculture 281(1–4):28–33. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.04.033Google Scholar
  187. Phillips MJP, De Silva SS (2006) Finfish cage culture in Asia: an overview of status, lessons learned and future developments. In: Halwart M, Moehl JF (eds) FAO Regional Technical Expert Workshop on Cage Culture in Africa. Entebbe, Uganda, 20–23 October 2004. FAO, Rome, pp 49–72Google Scholar
  188. Phong LT, van Dam AA, Udo HMJ, van Mensvoort MEF, Tri LQ, Steenstra FA, van der Zijpp AJ (2010) An agro-ecological evaluation of aquaculture integration into farming systems of the Mekong Delta. Agric Ecosyst Environ 138(3–4):232–241. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2010.05.004Google Scholar
  189. Phuong ND, Tuan VD, Toan TD (2006) Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization on crops, trees and vegetables. In: Porphyre V, Coi NQ (eds) Pig production development, animal waste management and environmental protection: a case study in Thai Binh Province, Northern Vietnam. PRISE Publications, Hanoi, pp 145–163Google Scholar
  190. Pilarski F, Tomazelli Jnior O, Casaca JM, Mello Garcia FR, Tomazelli IB, dos Santos IR (2004) Integrated fish/pig systems: environmental feature and fish quality. R Bras Zootec 33(2):267–276. doi:10.1590/S1516-35982004000200001Google Scholar
  191. Pingali P (2007) Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy. Food Policy 32(3):281–298. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2006.08.001Google Scholar
  192. Poot-López GR, Hernández JM, Gasca-Leyva E (2010) Input management in integrated agriculture–aquaculture systems in Yucatan: tree spinach leaves as a dietary supplement in tilapia culture. Agric Syst 103:98–104. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2009.11.003Google Scholar
  193. Prein M (2002) Integration of aquaculture into cropanimal systems in Asia. Agric Syst 71:127–146Google Scholar
  194. Prein M (2007) Comparative analysis of material flows in low input carp and poultry farming: an overview of concepts and methodology. In: Bartley DM, Brugre C, Soto D, Gerber P, Harvey B (eds) Comparative assessment of the environmental costs of aquaculture and other food production sectors: methods for meaningful comparisons. FAO/WFT Expert Workshop, 24–28 Apr 2006, Vancouver. FAO fisheries proceedings No. 10. FAO, Rome, pp 183–200Google Scholar
  195. Prein M, Ahmed M (2000) Integration of aquaculture into smallholder farming systems for improved food security and household nutrition. Food Nutr Bull 21(4):466–472Google Scholar
  196. Prein M, Lightfoot C, Pullin RSV (1998) ICLARM’s approach to the integration of aquaculture into sustainable farming systems. In: ADB/NACA. Report on a regional study and workshop on aquaculture sustainability and the environment. Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia, Bangkok, Thailand and the Asian Development Bank, Manila, pp 257–265Google Scholar
  197. Pretty J (2008) Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence. Phil Trans R Soc B 363:447–465. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pretty JN, Morison JIL, Hine RE (2003) Reducing food poverty by increasing agricultural sustainability in developing countries. Agric Ecosyst Environ 95(1):217–234. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(02)00087-7.Google Scholar
  199. Primavera JH (2005) Mangroves, fishponds, and the quest for sustainability. Science 310:57–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Pullin RSV (1998) Aquaculture, integrated resources management and the environment. In: Mathias JA, Charles AT, Baotong H (eds) Integrated fish farming. Proceedings of a workshop on integrated fish farming, 11–15 October 1994, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 19–43Google Scholar
  201. Pullin R, Froese R, Pauly D (2007) Indicators for the sustainability of aquaculture. In: Bert TM (ed) Ecological and genetic implications of aquaculture activities. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 53–72Google Scholar
  202. Rahman MM, Verdegem MCJ, Nagelkerke LAJ, Wahab MA, Milstein A, Verreth JAJ (2006) Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds. Aquaculture 257:359–372. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.03.020Google Scholar
  203. Rahman MM, Jo Q, Gong YG, Miller SA, Hossai MY (2008) A comparative study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and calbasu (Labeo calbasu Hamilton) on bottom soil resuspension, water quality, nutrient accumulations, food intake and growth of fish in simulated rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton) ponds. Aquaculture 285(1–4):78–83. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.002Google Scholar
  204. Rai S, Yi Y, Wahab MA, Bart AN, Diana JS (2008) Comparison of rice straw and bamboo stick substrates in periphyton-based carp polyculture systems. Aquac Res 39:464–473. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01898.xGoogle Scholar
  205. Rangacharyulu PV, Giri SS, Paul BN, Yashoda KP, Jagannatha Rao R, Mahendrakar NS, Mohanty SN, Mukhopadhyay PK (2003) Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps. Bioresour Technol 86:29–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Ritvo G, Kochba M, Avnimelech Y (2004) The effects of common carp bioturbation on fish pond bottom soil. Aquaculture 242(1):345–356Google Scholar
  207. Rivera-Ferré MG (2009) Can export-oriented aquaculture in developing countries be sustainable and promote sustainable development? The shrimp case. J Agric Environ Ethics 22(4):301–321. doi:10.1007/s10806-009-9148-7Google Scholar
  208. Ross LG, Martinez-Palacios CA, Morales EJ (2008) Developing native fish species for aquaculture: the interacting demands of biodiversity, sustainable aquaculture and livelihoods. Aquac Res 39(7):675–683. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.01920.xGoogle Scholar
  209. Rothuis AJ, Nhan DK, Richter CJJ, Ollevier F (1998) Rice with fish culture in the semi-deep waters of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: a socio-economical survey. Aquac Res 29:47–57Google Scholar
  210. Rothuis AJ, Vromant N, Xuan VT, Richter CJJ, Ollevier F (1999) The effect of rice seeding rate on rice and fish production, and weed abundance in direct-seeded ricefish culture. Aquaculture 172:255–274. doi:10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00396-2Google Scholar
  211. Ruddle K (1996) Households and community factors affecting development of small-scale fish farming in Africa. In: Bailey C, Jentoft S, Sinclair P (eds) Aquaculture development: social dimensions of an emerging industry. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  212. Ruddle K, Prein M (1997) Assessing potential nutritional and household economic benefits of developing integrated farming systems. In: Mathias J, Charles AT, Hu B (eds) Integrated fish farming. Proceedings of the international workshop held in Wuxi, Peoples Republic of China, 11–15 October 1994. CRC Press, Boca Raton/New York, pp 111–121Google Scholar
  213. Ruddle K, Deng H, Liang G (1986) Energy exchanges and the energy efficiency of household ponds in the dike-pond system of the Zhujiang Delta, China. Bull Natl Mus Ethnol 11(1):323–343Google Scholar
  214. Rudel TK, Schneider L, Uriarte M, Turner BL II, DeFriesc R, Lawrence D, Geoghegan J, Hecht S, Ickowitzf A, Lambin EF, Birkenholtz T, Baptista S, Grau R (2009) Agricultural intensification and changes in cultivated areas, 1970–2005. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106(49):20675–20680. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812540106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rufino MC, Rowe EC, Delve RJ, Giller KE (2006) Nitrogen cycling efficiencies through resource-poor African croplivestock systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112(4):261–282. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.028Google Scholar
  216. Sagoo EJR, Williams BJ, Chambers LO, Boyles RM, Chadwick DR (2007) Integrated management practices to minimise losses and maximise the crop nitrogen value of broiler litter. Biosystems Eng 97(4):512–519. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.03.032Google Scholar
  217. Saikia SK, Das DN (2009) Potentiality of periphyton-based aquaculture technology in rice-fish environment. J Sci Res 1(3):624–634. doi:10.3329/jsr.v1i3.2114Google Scholar
  218. Shang YC, Costa-Pierce B (1983) Integrated aquaculture-agriculture farming systems: some economic aspects. J World Maric Soc 14:523–530Google Scholar
  219. Shennan C (2008) Biotic interactions, ecological knowledge and agriculture. Phil Trans R Soc B 363:717–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Sikawa DC, Yakupitiyage A (2010) The hydroponic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by using hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus) pond water: potentials and constraints. Agric Water Manage 97(9):1317–1325. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2010.03.013Google Scholar
  221. Silva Castro R, Borges Azevedo CMS, Bezerra-Neto F (2006) Increasing cherry tomato yield using fish effluent as irrigation water in Northeast Brazil. Sci Hortic 110:44–50Google Scholar
  222. Sin TS (2006) Evaluation of different species of fish for biological control of golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck) in rice. Crop Prot 25:1004–1012Google Scholar
  223. Singh K, Garg SK, Kalla A, Bhatnagar A (2003) Oilcakes as protein sources in supplementary diets for the growth of Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) fingerlings: laboratory and field studies. Bioresour Technol 86:283–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Smardon RC (2006) Heritage values and functions of wetlands in Southern Mexico. Landsc Urban Plan 74:296–312. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.09.009Google Scholar
  225. Soliman AK, El-Horbeety AA, Essa MAR, Kosba MA, Kariony IA (2000) Effects of introducing ducks into fish ponds on water quality, natural productivity and fish production together with the economic evaluation of the integrated and non-integrated systems. Aquac Int 8:315–326Google Scholar
  226. Sommer SG, Petersen SO, Srensen P, Poulsen HD, Mller HB (2007) Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 78(1):27–36. doi:10.1007/s10705-006-9072Google Scholar
  227. Stonich SC, Vandergeest P (2001) Violence, environment, and industrial shrimp farming. In: Pelusso NL, Watts M (eds) Violent environments. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, pp 260–289Google Scholar
  228. Tacon AGJ, Metian M, Turchini GM, De Silva SS (2010) Responsible aquaculture and trophic level implications to global fish supply. Rev Fish Sci 18(1):94–105Google Scholar
  229. Tapia M, Zambrano L (2003) From aquaculture goals to real social and ecological impacts: carp introduction in rural Central Mexico. Ambio 32(4):252–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Terziyski D, Grozev G, Kalchev R, Stoeva A (2007) Effect of organic fertilizer on plankton primary productivity in fish ponds. Aquac Int 15:181–190. doi:10.1007/s10499-007-9086-1Google Scholar
  231. Thilsted S, Roos N, Hassan N (1997) The role of small indigenous fish species in food and nutrition security in Bangladesh. NAGA The ICLARM Quarterly JulyDecember, pp 82–84Google Scholar
  232. Tilman D (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80(5):1455–1474Google Scholar
  233. Tipraqsa P, Craswell ET, Noble AD, Schmidt-Vogt D (2007) Resource integration for multiple benefits: multifunctionality of integrated farming systems in Northeast Thailand. Agric Syst 94:694–703. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2007.02.009Google Scholar
  234. Troell M, Joyce A, Chopin T, Neori A, Buschmann AH, Fang J-G (2009) Ecological engineering in aquaculture – potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine offshore systems. Aquaculture 297:1–9. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.09.010Google Scholar
  235. Uddin S, Ekram-Ul-Azim M, Wahab A, Verdegem MCJ (2006) The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems. Aquac Res 37:241–247. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2005.01424Google Scholar
  236. Ulloa JB, Verreth JAJ (2003) Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems. Aquaculture 217:275–283Google Scholar
  237. Ulloa JB, van Weerd JH, Huisman EA, Verreth JAJ (2004) Tropical agricultural residues and their potential uses in fish feeds: the Costa Rican situation. Waste Manage 24:87–97. doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2003.09.003Google Scholar
  238. van Dam AA, Beveridge MCM, Azim ME, Verdegem MCJ (2002) The potential of fish production based on periphyton. Rev Fish Biol Fish 12:1–31Google Scholar
  239. Veerina SS, Nandeesha MC, De Silva SS, Ahmed M (1999) An analysis of production factors in carp farming in Andhra Pradesh, India. Aquac Res 30:805–814Google Scholar
  240. Vidotti RM, Carneiro DJ, Viegas E (2002) Growth rate of Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, fingerlings fed diets containing co-dried fish silage as replacement of fish meal. J Appl Aquac 12(4):77–88. doi:10.1300/J028v12n04_07Google Scholar
  241. Virk P, Saxena K (2003) Potential of Amaranthus seeds in supplementary feed and its impact on growth in some carps. Bioresour Technol 86(1):25–27. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(02)00139-6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Vromant N, Chau NTH (2005) Overall effect of rice biomass and fish on the aquatic ecology of experimental rice plots. Agric Ecosyst Environ 111:153–165. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2005.06.015Google Scholar
  243. Vromant N, Rothuis AJ, Cuc NTT, Ollevier F (1998) The effect of fish on the abundance of the rice caseworm Nymphula depunctalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in direct seeded, concurrent rice fish yields. Biocontrol Sci Technol 8:539–546. doi:10.1080/09583159830054Google Scholar
  244. Vromant N, Nhan DK, Chau NTH, Ollevier F (2002) Can fish control planthopper and leafhopper populations in intensive rice culture? Biocontrol Sci Technol 12:695–703. doi:10.1080/0958315021000039879Google Scholar
  245. Vu TKV, Tran MT, Dang TTS (2007) A survey of manure management on pig farms in Northern Vietnam. Livest Sci 112:288–297Google Scholar
  246. Wahab MA, Azim ME, Ali MH, Beveridge MCM, Khan S (1999) The potential of periphyton-based culture of the native major carp calbaush, Labeo calbasu (Hamilton). Aquac Res 30:409–419. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2109.1999.00337.xGoogle Scholar
  247. Wahab MA, Alim MA, Milstein A (2004) Effects of adding the small fish punti (Puntius sophore) and/or mola (Amblypharyngodon mola) to a polyculture of large carp. Aquac Res 35(2):124–133. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.00990.xGoogle Scholar
  248. Wahab MA, Kunda M, Azim ME, Dewan S, Thilsted SH (2008) Evaluation of freshwater prawn-small fish culture concurrently with rice in Bangladesh. Aquac Res 39(14):1524–1532. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02025.xGoogle Scholar
  249. Webb C, Bodin O (2008) A network perspective on modularity and control of flow in robust systems. In: Norberg J, Cumming GS (eds) Complexity theory for a sustainable future. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 95–118Google Scholar
  250. Wee KL, Ng LT (1986) Use of cassava as an energy source in a pelleted feed for the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquac Res 17(2):129–138. doi:10.1111/j.1365 -2109.1986.tb00094.xGoogle Scholar
  251. Weimin M (2010) Recent developments in rice-fish culture in China: a holistic approach for livelihood improvement in rural areas. In: De Silva SS, Davy B (eds) Success stories in Asian aquaculture. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 27–40Google Scholar
  252. Weng Q (2007) A historical perspective of river basin management in the Pearl River Delta of China. J Environ Manage 85:1048–1062. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.11.008PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Wetengere K (2009) Socio-economic factors critical for adoption of fish farming technology: the case of selected villages in Eastern Tanzania. Int J Fish Aquac 1(3):28–37Google Scholar
  254. WHO (2009) World malaria report 2009. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  255. Yan YS, Shang W, Fu WH, An KD, Rong KM, Zhai WQ (1995) Ability of fish to control rice diseases, pests, and weeds. In: Mackay KT (ed) Rice-fish culture in China. IDRC, Ottawa, pp 223–229Google Scholar
  256. Yang Y, Hang H, Xiao-jun HU, Dai Q, Zang Y (2006) Characteristics of growth and yield formation of rice in rice-fish farming system. Agric Sci China 5(2):103–110Google Scholar
  257. Yee AWC (1999) New developments in integrated dike-pond agriculture-aquaculture in the Zhujiang Delta, China: ecological implications. Ambio 28(6):529–533Google Scholar
  258. Yi Y, Lin CK, Diana JS (2002) Recycling pond mud nutrients in integrated lotus-fish culture. Aquaculture 212:217–230Google Scholar
  259. You L, Ringler C, Nelson G, Wood-Sichra U, Robertson R, Wood S, Guo Z, Zhu T, Sun Y (2010) What is the irrigation potential for Africa? A combined biophysical and socioeconomic approach. IFPRI Discussion Paper 993. IFPRI, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  260. Yuvanatemiya V, Boyd CE (2006) Physical and chemical changes in aquaculture pond bottom soil resulting from sediment removal. Aquacult Eng 35:199–205. doi:10.1016/j.aquaeng.2006.02.001Google Scholar
  261. Zajdband AD (2009) Integrando actividades en la Provincia de Misiones. Rev LEISA de Agroecol 25(1):31–33Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of AgronomyUniversity of Buenos Aires/CONICETCiudad de Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations