National and Global Challenges to Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Current Development and Future Strategies
Higher education in Saudi Arabia has been undergoing rapid development and improvement for the past four decades. Current policies and strategies for the future have been largely shaped by, and in response to, the challenges and opportunities generated by both global trends in higher education and growing demands for a highly qualified national workforce. Increased global openness and the unrestricted cross-border mobility of international higher education institutions are contributing to reform in Saudi higher education. The desire to move Saudi universities up the global rankings is impelling national policies to reform existing higher education institutions and establish new ones. These imperatives are all leading towards a Saudi model of the knowledge-based economy. The chapter explores Saudi national policies and future plans in higher education, and explains how these plans and policies have been progressively formulated in response to both national and international challenges.
KeywordsHigh Education Saudi Arabia High Education Institution Absorptive Capacity Internal Efficiency
- Alfaisal University (2008). Vision and mission (2008). http://www.alfaisal.edu/about/vision_mission.htm. Accessed 11 Sept 2008.
- Al-Naimi, A. (2008). KAUST and the economic development of Saudi Arabia. http://www.kaust.edu.sa/bios/speech-al-naimi-grp.aspx. Accessed 9 Sept 2008.
- Altbach, P. (2001) Higher education and the WTO: Globalization run amok. International Higher Education, Spring, 2–4. Boston: Centre of International Higher Education, Boston College.Google Scholar
- Al-Wehameed, A. (2008) Prince Muhammad University to open in Damman next month. http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contented=2008071912179&archiveissuedate=19/07/2008. Accessed 13 Sept 2008.
- AMEinfo.com. (2006a, March 30). Saudi education strengthens its domestic base. http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/81828.html. Accessed 12 Sept 2008.
- AMEinfo.com. (2006b, November 30). Saudi Arabia looks eastwards for higher education. http://www.ameinfo.com/news/Detailed/81824.html. Accessed 12 Sept 2008.
- Carnoy, M. (2005) Globalization, educational trends and the open society. OSI Education Conference 2005, Education and Open Society: A critical look at new perspectives and demands. Education Support Program, Open Society Institute.Google Scholar
- Chang, Da. et al. (2008, April 30). Higher Education: Middle East (Part 1), Overview, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. IPPTN Bulletin No. 30. Penang: IPPTN, University Sains Malaysia.Google Scholar
- Diwan, I., & Girgis, M. (2002, October 19–23) Labour force and development in Saudi Arabia. Paper presented to the symposium on the future vision for the Saudi Economy. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Economy and Planning.Google Scholar
- Education and Human Resources News Stories. (2006). Foundation stone laid for Prince Muhammad University in Al-Khobar. http://www.saudiembassy.net /2006News/News/ EduDetail.asp?cIndex=6122. Accessed 10 Sept 2008.
- International Labor Organization, ILO. (2004, January). Global employment trends. Geneva: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar
- King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST. (2008a). Website. http://www.kaust.edu.sa. Accessed 21 Nov 2008.
- King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, KAUST. (2008b). A message from the Custodian of the two Holy Mosques. http://www.kaust.edu.sa/message-from-the-king.aspx. Accessed 10 Sept 2008.
- King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM. (2008). A future plan for university education in the Kingdom. http://aafaq.kfupm.edu.sa/project/project.asp. Accessed 13 Sept 2008.
- Krieger, Z. (2007, September 14). Saudi Arabia puts its billions behind Western-style higher education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 54(3), A1. http://chronicle.com. Accessed 8 Sept 2008.
- Mahathir, M. (2002) Globalization: Challenges and impact on Asia. In F. Richter & P. Mar (Eds.), Recreating Asia: Visions for a new century (pp. 5–11). Singapore: John Wiley.Google Scholar
- Mahdi, S. (2000) Saudization and structure of the labour market in Saudi Arabia. Economics Paper 24, UHBS 2000:11, p. 19.Google Scholar
- Marginson, S. (2006). Global university rankings at the end of 2006: Is this the hierarchy we have to have? OECD/IMHE and Hochschulrektorenkonferenz, Germany: Workshop 4–5 December. Bonn.Google Scholar
- Marginson, S. (2007, November 3). Social change and university development. Paper prepared for the Beijing Forum, Peking University.Google Scholar
- Masood, R. (1989) Economic diversification and development in Saudi Arabia. Bombay: Popular Prakashan Private.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning. (2000). Seventh Development Plan (2000–2005). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning. (2003). Human development report 2003. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning. (2004). Saudi Arabia: Long-term strategy 2025. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning. (2005). Eighth Development Plan (2005–2009). Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning, Saudi Arabia. (2006a). Achievements of the Development Plans: Facts and figures. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Economy and Planning. (2006b). Population and housing census for the year 2004. Central Department of Statistics and Information. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Mosa, A. (2000). Pressures in Saudi Arabia. International Higher Education, (Summer), 20, 23–25.Google Scholar
- Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, PMU. (2008). Overview: Making History…building leaders (2008). http://www.pmu.edu.sa/enn/overview.asp. Accessed 10 Sept 2008.
- Report of Taskforce on Globalization of Higher Education. (2003). Agenda item: 07 Doc: 09E “Globalization, GATS and Higher Education – Position Paper”. International Conference on Higher Education and Research held in Dakar in November 2003.Google Scholar
- Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. (2006). 42nd Annual Report. Research and Statistics Department. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency. (2007) 43rd Annual Report. Research and Statistics Department. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Saudi National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment. (2006). National qualifications framework for higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Google Scholar
- Sheikh, H. (2007). Saudi set to develop education system. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?xfile=data/middleeast/2007/April/middleeast_April258.xml§ion=middleeast&col. Accessed 12 Sept 2008.
- Weber, L., & Duderstadt, J. J. (2004). Preface. In L. Weber & J. Duderstadt (Eds.), Reinventing the Research University (pp. ix–xii). London: Economica.Google Scholar