Macro-Context and Its Cross-Country Variation

  • Anna Matysiak
Part of the European Studies of Population book series (ESPO, volume 17)


The context is a multi-dimensional and multi-level ‘structure of institutions that embody information about opportunities and restrictions, consequences and expectations, rights and duties, incentives and sanctions, models, guidelines, and definitions of the world’ (de Bruijn, 1999: 21). This information is continuously transmitted to individuals and defines the choice options they face. As described in Chapter 3 four dimensions of the macro-context are considered relevant to women’s fertility and employment decisions: institutional (family policies), structural (labour market structures), cultural (gender norms), and economic (living standards). The first three influence the magnitude of the price effect, producing the so-called institutional, structural and cultural incompatibilities between childbearing and market work. The intensity of these incompatibilities depends on the extent to which mothers’ work is socially accepted and institutionally supported and to which the labour market is prepared to accommodate female labour. The fourth dimension of the context affects the income effect.


Parental Leave Family Policy Country Ranking Policy Indicator Labour Market Entry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Warsaw School of EconomicsInstitute of Statistics and DemographyWarsawPoland

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