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Solar pasteurization is one of the easiest and cheapest methods to produce potable water in remote areas. It relies on the energy of the sun to heat the water to pasteurization temperature. Most people believe that water needs to be boiled to kill pathogens present in water. However, pasteurization temperature is sufficient to kill these microorganisms. The process is similar to conventional milk pasteurization process with the exceptions that the source of energy is the sun and the use of low cost materials. Besides providing potable water, solar pasteurization can be used for cooking. Solar pasteurization finds application in remote, high elevation sunny areas where electricity is not available. In these areas, firewood is not easily available. This chapter provides some of the basics of solar pasteurization, presents easy to find materials that can be used to fabricate the pasteurization systems, and compares the performance of commercial and easy to make units. Its use for potable water production is discussed.