• Chittaranjan RayEmail author
  • Ravi Jain
Part of the Strategies for Sustainability book series (STSU)


The importance of continuing the development of a worldwide clean water supply cannot be overstressed. Developing systems that allow over 6 billion people to have access to 1% of the world’s total water volume is no small feat. This is particularly exacerbated by the overuse and misuse of water, and the disparity between affluent regions and those experiencing poverty. While efforts from international organizations during the last fifteen years have provided 1.1 billion people access to clean water which they would not have had otherwise, there remains yet another 1.1 billion people who do not have access to safe water supply (UNICEF Handbook on Water Quality 2008). According to the 2008 UNICEF “Handbook on Water Quality,” insufficient water supplies coupled with poor sanitation causes 3.4 million deaths per year (p. 1), which translates into someone dying every 10 sec. Clearly this is a challenging task.


Contamination Drinking water Filtration Health risks Pathogens 

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil & Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA
  2. 2.School of Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of the PacificStocktonUSA

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