Income and Material Living Standards
This chapter explores the distributive structure of income as well as material living standards (household assets, housing standards). These two aspects are used as two parallel sets of indicators of the consequences of the institutional mix, with different theoretical as well as technical features.
KeywordsLabour Market Income Inequality Welfare State Nordic Country Poverty Rate
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- 1.Poverty trends for individuals are calculated according to the traditional absolute poverty line used in Swedish statistics. This line is defined by the National Board for Health and Social Affairs based on a fixed sum defined by budget studies. Individuals living in households with disposable incomes below that standard after taxes and transfers are regarded as poor. The socio-economic as well as income measurement is dubious for this category. In addition, larger and differential non-response should contribute to less reliable findings. The findings for Luxembourg correspond to the current labour market structure and wage levels.Google Scholar
- 3.Small scale farmers, which in the Southern countries form a larger part of the labour force, are here collapsed with manual workers.Google Scholar
- 4.Inequality indexes are in this section based on the following sample of eleven indicators: Absence of overcrowded housing; High standard of housing space; Ownership of a dishwasher; car; a second home; a caravan; a boat; a video; dishwasher; a freezer; access to a daily newspaper.Google Scholar