• Tim H. Sparks
  • Humphrey Q. P. Crick
  • Peter O. Dunn
  • Leonid V. Sokolov
Part of the Tasks for Vegetation Science book series (TAVS, volume 39)


The Roman mosaic floor at Lullingstone, Kent, UK depicts the four seasons as human characters and having a barn swallow Hirundo rustica on her shoulder uniquely identifies spring. Thus, for almost 2000 years people have associated spring with the arrival of migratory birds. In the UK the (currently) oldest phenological record dates to 1703 and refers to the call of the cuckoo Cuculus canorus. It is hardly surprising then that the timing of bird activity is a productive area of phenological research.

Key words

Birds Climate change Migration Temperature Nesting 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim H. Sparks
    • 1
  • Humphrey Q. P. Crick
    • 2
  • Peter O. Dunn
    • 3
  • Leonid V. Sokolov
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and HydrologyMonks WoodUK
  2. 2.British Trust for OrnithologyThetfordUK
  3. 3.Department of Biological SciencesUniversity of Wisconsin- MilwaukeeMilwaukeeUSA
  4. 4.Russian Academy of SciencesSt. PetersburgRussia

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