Advertisement

Systematic Palaeobotany

  • Thomas DenkEmail author
  • Friðgeir Grímsson
  • Reinhard Zetter
  • Leifur A. Símonarson
Chapter
  • 947 Downloads
Part of the Topics in Geobiology book series (TGBI, volume 35)

Abstract

This chapter provides morphological descriptions including remarks on nomenclatural problems for the macrofossil (M) and palynological (P) record from Iceland. The systematic section starts with Bryophyta (mosses), Lycopodiophyta (clubmosses and spikemosses), and Pteridophyta (horsetails and true ferns), followed by Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pinophyta (conifers), and Magnoliophyta (flowering plants). Families and genera appear in alphabetical order. Incertae sedis are listed at the end of each large taxonomic group. For each taxon described, stratigraphic and geographic occurrences are provided. Remarks regarding systematic affinities to coeval and extant taxa are added as well. Most taxa described here are illustrated in the plates accompanying  Chaps. 4 11. Macrofossils are stored in the Swedish Museum of Natural History (S), the Icelandic Institute (Museum) of Natural History (IMNH), and the Geological Museum, Copenhagen (GM). Pollen samples are kept at the Department of Palaeobotany, University of Vienna. A table summarizing all (morpho)taxa recorded from Iceland with their stratigraphic ranges is provided at the end of  Chap. 12 (Appendix 12.1).

Keywords

Equatorial Diameter Polar Axis Secondary Vein Pollen Wall Spore Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Akhmetiev, M. A., Bratzeva, G. M., Giterman, R. E., Golubeva, L. V., & Moiseyeva, A. I. (1978). Late Cenozoic stratigraphy and flora of Iceland. Transactions of the Academy of Sciences USSR, 316, 1–188.Google Scholar
  2. Áskelsson, J. (1946). Um gróðurmenjar í Þórishlíðarfjalli við Selárdal. Andvari, 71, 80–86.Google Scholar
  3. Áskelsson, J. (1954). Myndir úr jarðfræði Íslands II. Fáeinar plöntur úr surtarbrandslögunum hjá Brjánslæk. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 24, 92–6.Google Scholar
  4. Áskelsson, J. (1956). Myndir úr jarðfræði Íslands IV. Fáeinar plöntur úr surtarbrandslögunum. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 26, 42–48.Google Scholar
  5. Áskelsson, J. (1957). Myndir úr jarðfræði Íslands VI. Þrjár nýjar plöntur úr surtarbrandslögunum í Þórishlíðarfjalli. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 27, 22–29.Google Scholar
  6. Baranova, M. (1972). Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon, 21, 447–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Basinger, J. F. (1991). The fossil forests of the Buchanan Lake Formation (early Tertiary), Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Preliminary floristics and paleoclimate. In R. L. Christie & N. J. McMillan (Eds.), Tertiary fossil forests of the Geodetic Hills, Axel Heiberg Island, Arctic Archipelago (pp. 39–65). Ottowa: Geological Survey of Canada.Google Scholar
  8. Blackmore, S., & Heath, G. L. A. (1984). The Northwest European pollen flora, 35. Menyanthaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 42, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blackmore, S., Steinmann, J. A. J., Hoen, P. P., & Punt, W. (2003). The Northwest European pollen flora, 65. Betulaceae and Corylaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 123, 71–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bos, J. A. A., & Punt, W. (1991). The Northwest European pollen flora, 47. Juglandaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 69, 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boulter, M. C. (1969). Cryptomeria – A significant component of the European Tertiary. Paläontologische Abhandlungen B 3, Paläobotanik, 3–4, 279–287.Google Scholar
  12. Boulter, M. C., & Chaloner, W. G. (1970). Neogene fossil plants from Derbyshire (England). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 10, 61–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boulter, M. C., & Kvaček, Z. (1989). The Palaeocene flora of the Isle of Mull. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 42, 1–149.Google Scholar
  14. Bronn, H. G. (1838). Lethaea Geognostica, oder Abbildungen und Beschreibungen der für die Gebirgs-Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. Zweiter Band, das Kreide- und Molassen-Gebirge enthaltend. Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart’s Verlagshandlung.Google Scholar
  15. Buchner, R., Weber, M. (Eds.) (2000-). PalDat - a palynological database: Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. http://www.paldat.org/PalDat (last accessed June, 2010).
  16. Budantsev, L. J. (1997). Late Eocene flora of western Kamchatka. Russian Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of Komarow Botanical Institute, 19, 1–115.Google Scholar
  17. Camp, W. H. (1950). A biogeographic and paragenetic analysis of the American beech (Fagus). Yearbook American Philosophical Society 1950, 166–169.Google Scholar
  18. Chaney, R. M. (1951). A revision of fossil Sequoia and Taxodium in western North America based on the recent discovery of Metasequoia. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 40, 171–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaney, R. M., & Axelrod, D. I. (1959). Miocene floras of the Columbian plateau Washington DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 617. 237 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Chaney, R. M., & Elias, M. K. (1936). Late Tertiary floras from the high plains. Contributions to palaeontology 1. Washington DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 476. 72 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Chmura, C. A. (1973). Upper Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) angiosperm pollen from the western San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. Palaeontographica Abteilung B, 141, 89–171.Google Scholar
  22. Clarke, G. (1978). Pollen morphology and generic relationships in the Valerianaceae. Grana, 17, 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clarke, G. C. S., & Jones, M. R. (1977a). The Northwest European pollen flora, 15. Plantaginaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 24, 129–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke, G. C. S., & Jones, M. R. (1977b). The Northwest European pollen flora, 16. Valerianaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 24, 155–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Clarke, G. C. S., & Jones, M. R. (1978). The Northwest European pollen flora, 17. Aceraceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 26, 181–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clarke, G. C. S., Punt, W., & Hoen, P. P. (1991). The Northwest European pollen flora, 51. Ranunculaceae. Review of Palaeobotnay and Palynology, 69, 117–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Claugher, D., & Rowley, J. R. (1990). Pollen exine substructure in Fagus (Fagaceae): Role of tufts in exine expansion. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68, 2195–2200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Denk, T. (1999a). The taxonomy of Fagus in western Asia. 1: Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (=Fagus orientalis). Feddes Repertorium, 110, 177–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Denk, T. (1999b). The taxonomy of Fagus L. in western Eurasia. 2: Fagus sylvatica ssp. sylvatica (=Fagus sylvatica). Feddes Repertorium, 110, 379–410.Google Scholar
  30. Denk, T. (1999c). The taxonomy of Fagus in western Eurasia and the ancestors of Fagus sylvatica s.l. Acta Palaeobotanica, Suppl. 2, 633–641.Google Scholar
  31. Denk, T., & Grimm, G. W. (2009a). Significance of pollen characteristics for infrageneric classification and phylogeny in Quercus (Fagaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170, 926–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Denk, T., & Grimm, G. W. (2009b). The biogeographic history of beech trees. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 158, 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Denk, T., & Meller, B. (2001). The systematic significance of the cupule/nut complex in living and fossil Fagus. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162, 869–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Denk, T., Grimm, G., Stögerer, K., Langer, M., & Hemleben, V. (2002). The evolutionary history of Fagus in western Eurasia: Evidence from genes, morphology and the fossil record. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 232, 213–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Denk, T., Grímsson, G., & Kvaček, Z. (2005). The Miocene flora of Iceland and its significance for late Cainozoic North Atlantic biogeography. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 149, 369–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Denk, T., Grímsson, F., & Zetter, R. (2010). Episodic migration of oaks to Iceland – Evidence for a North Atlantic “land bridge” in the latest Miocene. American Journal of Botany, 97, 276–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dorofeev, P., & Iljinskaja, I. (1994). Magnoliophyta fossilia rossiae et civitatum finitimarum, vol. 3, Leitneriaceae-Juglandaceae. Saint Petersburg: Russian Academy of Sciences, Komarov Botanical Institute. 118 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Engel, M. S. (1978). The Northwest European pollen flora, 19. Haloragaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 26, 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Feng, G.-P., Ablaev, A. G., Wang, Y.-F., & Li, C.-S. (2003). Palaeocene Wuyun flora in Northeast China: Ulmus furcinervis of Ulmaceae. Acta Botanica Sinica, 53, 146–151.Google Scholar
  40. Ferguson, D. K. (1971). The Miocene flora of Kreuzau – western Germany 1. The leaf remains. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdelning Natuurkunde, 60, 1–297.Google Scholar
  41. Feuer, S. M., & Kuijt, J. (1982). Fine structure of mistletoe pollen. IV. Eurasian and Australian Viscum L. (Viscaceae). American Journal of Botany, 69, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Florin, R. (1931). Untersuchungen zur Stammesgeschichte der Coniferales und Cordaitales. Erster Teil: Morphologie und Epidermisstruktur der Assimilationsorgane bei den rezenten Koniferen. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar, 10, 1–588.Google Scholar
  43. Fotjanova, L. I. (1988). Flora dalniego vostoka na rubeshe paleogena i neogena (na primere Sakhalina i Kamchatki). Moscow: Nauka.Google Scholar
  44. Friedrich, W. L. (1966). Zur Geologie von Brjánslaekur (Nordwest-Island) unter besonderen Berücksichtigung der fossilen Flora. Sonderveröffentlichungen des Geologischen Institutes der Universität Köln, 10, 1–110.Google Scholar
  45. Friedrich, W. L. (1968). Tertiäre Pflanzen aus Brjánslækur (NW-Island) in seltener Erhaltung. Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologisk Førening, 18, 181–186.Google Scholar
  46. Friedrich, W. L., & Símonarson, L. A. (1976). Acer askelssonii n. sp., grosse Neogene Teilfrüchte aus Island. Palaeontographica B, 155, 151–166.Google Scholar
  47. Friedrich, W. L., & Símonarson, L. A. (1981). Die fossile Flora Islands: Zeugin der Thule- Landbrücke. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 10(1981), 22–31.Google Scholar
  48. Friedrich, W. L., & Símonarson, L. A. (1982). Acer-Funde aus dem Neogen von Island und ihre stratigraphische Stellung. Palaeontographica B, 182, 151–166.Google Scholar
  49. Friedrich, W. L., & Símonarson, L. A. (1983). Fossile planter fra Island. Naturens Verden, 9, 302–313.Google Scholar
  50. Friedrich, W. L., Símonarson, L. A., & Heie, O. E. (1972). Steingervingar í millilögum í Mókollsdal. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 42, 4–17.Google Scholar
  51. Fürstl, T. (2002). Zur Pollenmorphologie rezenter und fossiler Aceraceae. Master thesis, University of Vienna. 73 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Goeppert, H. R. (1855). Die tertiäre Flora von Schossnitz in Schlesien. Görlitz: Heyn’sche Buchhandlung (E. Remer). 52 pp.Google Scholar
  53. Grimm, G. W., Denk, T., & Hemleben, V. (2007). The Evolutionary History and Systematics of Acer section Acer − a case study of low-level phylogenetics. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 267, 215–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grímsson, F., & Denk, T. (2005). Fagus from the Miocene of Iceland: Systematics and biogeographical considerations. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 134, 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grímsson, F., & Símonarson, L. A. (2006). Beyki úr íslenskum setlögum. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 74, 81–102.Google Scholar
  56. Grímsson, F., & Símonarson, L. A. (2008a). Íslands fornu skógar. Skógræktarritið, 2008(2), 14–30.Google Scholar
  57. Grímsson, F., & Símonarson, L. A. (2008b). Upper Tertiary non-marine environments and climate changes in Iceland. Jökull, 58, 303–314.Google Scholar
  58. Grímsson, F., Símonarson, L. A., & Friedrich, W. L. (2005). Kynlega stór aldin úr síðtertíerum setlögum á Íslandi. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 73, 15–29.Google Scholar
  59. Grímsson, F., Denk, T., & Símonarson, L. A. (2007a). Middle Miocene floras of Iceland - the early colonization of an island? Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 144, 181–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grímsson, F., Símonarson, L. A., & Denk, T. (2007b). Elstu flórur Íslands. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 75, 85–106.Google Scholar
  61. Grímsson, F., Denk, T., & Zetter, R. (2008). Pollen, fruits, and leaves of Tetracentron (Trochodendraceae) from the Cainozoic of Iceland and western North America and their palaeobiogeographic implications. Grana, 47, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Grudzinskaya, I. A. (1979). The family Ulmaceae Mirb. (systematics, geography, aspects of organogenesis). Saint Petersburg: Avtoreferat in Russian, Komarov Botanical Institute. 39 pp.Google Scholar
  63. Halbritter, H. (2005). Fragaria moschata. In: R. Buchner, M. Weber (Eds.) (2000-). PalDat – A palynological database: Descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. http://www.paldat.org/
  64. Hantke, R. (1954). Die fossile Flora der obermiozänen Oehninger-Fundstelle Schrotzburg. Denkschriften der Schweitzerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 80, 27–118.Google Scholar
  65. Heath, G. L. A. (1984). The Northwest European pollen flora, 34. Hippocastanaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 42, 111–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hebda, R. J., Chinnappa, C. C., & Smith, B. M. (1988). Pollen morphology of the Rosaceae of western Canada. II. Dryas, Fragaria, Holodiscus. Canadian Journal of Botany, 66, 595–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Heer, O. (1856). Flora Tertiaria Helvetica – Die tertiäre Flora der Schweiz, 2nd volume. Winterthur: J. Wurster & Compagnie. 110 pp.Google Scholar
  68. Heer, O. 1859. Flora Tertiaria Helvetica – Die tertiäre Flora der Schweiz, 3rd volume. Winterthur: J. Wurster & Compagnie. 378 pp.Google Scholar
  69. Heer, O. (1865). Die Urwelt der Schweiz. Zürich: Friedrich Schulthess. 622 pp.Google Scholar
  70. Heer, O. (1868). Flora fossilis arctica 1. Die Fossile Flora der Polarländer enthaltend die in Nordgrönland, auf der Melville-Insel, im Banksland, am Mackenzie, in Island und in Spitzbergen entdeckten fossilen Pflanzen. Zürich: F. Schulthess. 192 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Henry, A., & McIntyre, M. (1926). The swamp cypress, Glyptostrobus of China and Taxodium of America, with notes on allied genera. Proceedings. Royal Irish Academy, 37(B (13)), 90–116.Google Scholar
  72. Hong, S. P. (1993). Reconsideration of the generic status of Rubrivena (Polygonaceae, Persicarieae). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 186, 95–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hong, S.-P., & Hedberg, O. (1990). Parallel evolution of aperture numbers and arrangement in the genera Koenigia, Persicaria and Aconogonon (Polygonaceae). Grana, 29, 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Jones, M. R., & Clarke, G. C. S. (1981). The Northwest European pollen flora, 25. Nymphaeaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 33, 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kilpper, K. (1968). Koniferen aus den tertiären Deckschichten des niederrheinischen Hauptflözes, 3. Taxodiaceae und Cupressaceae. Palaeontographica B, 124, 102–111.Google Scholar
  76. Knobloch, E. (1969). Tertiäre Floren von Mähren. Brno: Moravské Museum Brno. 201 pp.Google Scholar
  77. Knobloch, E. (1998). Der pliozäne Laubwald von Willershausen am Harz. Documenta naturae, 120, 1–302.Google Scholar
  78. Knobloch, E., & Kvaček, Z. (1976). Miozäne Blätterfloren vom Westrand der Böhmischen Masse. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického, 42, 1–131.Google Scholar
  79. Knobloch, E., & Kvaček, Z. (1996). Miozäne Floren der südböhmischen Becken. Sborník geologických věd. Paleontologie, 33, 39–77.Google Scholar
  80. Kovar-Eder, J., Kvaček, Z., & Ströbitzer-Hermann, M. (2004). The Miocene flora of Parschlug (Styria, Austria) - Revision and synthesis. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien A, 104, 45–161.Google Scholar
  81. Kvaček, Z. (2002). Novelties on Doliostrobus (Doliostrobaceae), an exctinct conifer genus of the European Palaeogene. Časopis Národního muzea, řada přírodovĕdná, 171, 131–175.Google Scholar
  82. Kvaček, Z., & Walther, H. (2004). Oligocene Flora of Bechlejovice at Děčín from the neovolcanic area of the České Středohoří Mountains, Czech Republic. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae B, Historia Naturalis, 60, 9–60.Google Scholar
  83. Kvaček, Z., Manum, S. B., & Boulter, M. C. (1994). Angiosperms from the Palaeogene of Spitsbergen, including an unfinished work by A. G. Nathorst. Palaeontographica B, 232, 103–128.Google Scholar
  84. Kvaček, Z., Velitzelos, D., & Velitzelos, E. (2002). Late Miocene flora of Vegora Macedonia N. Greece). Athens: Korali Publications. 175 pp.Google Scholar
  85. La Motte, R. S. (1936). The Upper Cedarville flora of nortwestern Nevada and adjacent California. Carnegie Institute of Washington Publications, 455, 57–142.Google Scholar
  86. Lee, S., & Blackmore, S. (1992). A palynotaxonomical study of the genus Trollius (Ranunculaceae). Grana, 31, 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. LePage, B. A., & Basinger, J. F. (1991). Early Tertiary Larix from the Buchanan Lake Formation, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and a consideration of the phytogeography of the genus. Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin, 403, 67–82.Google Scholar
  88. Li, J. H., Shoup, S., & Chen, Z. D. (2005). Phylogenetics of Betula (Betulaceae) inferred from sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Rhodora, 107, 69–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Líndal, J. H. (1935). Móbergsmyndanir í Bakkakotsbrúnum og steingervingar ʿþeirra. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 5, 97–114.Google Scholar
  90. Líndal, J. H. (1939). The interglacial formation in Viðidal, Northern Iceland. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, 95, 261–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lindquist, B. (1947). Two species of Betula from the Iceland Miocene. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 41, 339–353.Google Scholar
  92. Liu, Y.-S., & Basinger, J. F. (2000). Fossil Cathaya (Pinaceae) pollen from the Canadian High Arctic. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 161, 829–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Liu, Y.-S., Zetter, R., Ferguson, D. K., & Mohr, B. A. R. (2007). Discriminating fossil and evergeen Quercus pollen: A case study from the Miocene of eastern China. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 145, 289–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ma, Q.-W., Li, C.-S., & Li, F.-L. (2007). Epidermal structures of Cryptomeria japonica and implications to the fossil record. Acta Palaeobotanica, 47, 281–289.Google Scholar
  95. Mädler, K. (1939). Die pliozäne Flora von Frankfurt am Main. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergi­schen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft, 446, 1–202.Google Scholar
  96. Mai, H. D. (1995). Tertiäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Jena: Gustav Fischer. 691 pp.Google Scholar
  97. Manchester, S. R. (1989). Systematics and fossil history of the Ulmaceae. In P. R. Crane & S. Blackmore (Eds.), Evolution, systematics, and fossil history of the Hamamelidae (Vol. 2, pp. 221–251). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  98. Manchester, S. R. (1999). Biogeographical relationships of North American Tertiary floras. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 86, 472–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Manchester, S. R. (2001). Leaves and fruits of Aesculus (Sapindales) from the Paleocene of North America. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 162, 985–998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Matthews, J. F., Jr., & Ovenden, L. E. (1990). Late Tertiary Plant Macrofossils from Localities in Arctic/Subarctic North America: A review of the data. Arctic, 43, 364–392.Google Scholar
  101. Meusel, H., Jäger, E., & Weinert, E. (1965). Vergleichende Chorologie der Zentraleuropäischen Flora. Jena: VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag. 583 pp.Google Scholar
  102. Meyer, H. W., & Manchester, S. R. (1997). The Oligocene Bridge Creek flora of the John Day Formation. Oregon. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences, 141, 1–195.Google Scholar
  103. Milne, R. I. (2004). Phylogeny and biogeography of Rhododendron subsection Pontica, a group with a tertiary relict distribution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 33, 389–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nagels, A., Muasya, A. M., Huysmans, S., Vrijdaghs, A., Smets, E., & Vinckier, S. (2009). Palynological diversity and major evolutionary trends in Cyperaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 277, 117–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nilsson, S. (1973). Menyanthaceae Dum. World Pollen and Spore Flora, 2, 1–19.Google Scholar
  106. Nixon, K. C., & Poole, J. M. (2004). Revision of the Mexican and Guatemalan species of Platanus (Platanaceae). Lundellia, 6, 103–137.Google Scholar
  107. Ozaki, K. (1991). Late Miocene and Pliocene floras in Central Honshu, Japan. Bulletin of Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Natural Science Special Issue. 244 ppGoogle Scholar
  108. Pozhidaev, A. E. (1995). Pollen morphology of the genus Aesculus (Hippocastanaceae). Grana, 34, 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Praglowski, J. (1974). The pollen morphology of the Trochodendraceae, Tetracentraceae, Cercidiphyllaceae and Eupteleaceae with reference to taxonomy. Pollen et Spores, 16, 449–467.Google Scholar
  110. Praglowski, J., Nowicke, J. W., Raven, P. H., Skvarla, J. J., & Wagner, W. L. (1987). Onagraceae Juss. Onagreae R. Rainmann pro parte. World Pollen and Spore Flora, 15, 1–55.Google Scholar
  111. Praglowski, J., Nowicke, J. W., Skvarla, J. J., Hoch, P. C., Raven, P. H., & Takahashi, M. (1994). Onagraceae Juss. Circaeae DC, Hauyeae Rainmann, Epilobieae Spach. World Pollen and Spore Flora, 19, 1–38.Google Scholar
  112. Procházka, J., & Bůžek, Č. (1975). Maple leaves from the Tertiary of North Bohemia. Rozpravy Ústředního ústavu geologického, 41, 7–86.Google Scholar
  113. Punt, W. (1975). The Northwest European pollen flora, 5. Sparganiaceae and Typhaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 19, NE75–88.Google Scholar
  114. Punt, W. (1984). The Northwest European pollen flora, 37. Umbelliferae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 42, 155–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Punt, W., & Hoen, P. P. (1995). The Northwest European pollen flora, 56. Caryophyllaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 88, 83–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Punt, W., & Nienhuis, W. (1976). The Northwest European pollen flora 6. Gentianaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 21, 89–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Punt, W., & Schmitz, M. B. (1981). The Northwest European pollen flora, 26. Aquifoliaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 33, 69–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Punt, W., Hoen, P. P., Blackmore, S., Nilsson, S., & Le Thomas, A. (2007). Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 143, 1–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rowley, J. R. (1996). Exine origin, development and structure in pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. In J. Jansonius & D. C. McGregor (Eds.), Palynology: Principles and ­applications (Vol. 1, pp. 443–462). Dallas: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation. Chapter 14D.Google Scholar
  120. Rowley, J. R., & Gabarayeva, N. I. (2004). Microspore development in Quercus robur (Fagaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 132, 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Saito, T., Wang, W.-M., & Nakagawa, T. (2000). Cathaya (Pinaceae) pollen from Mio-Pliocene sediments in the Himi area, central Japan. Grana, 39, 288–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Santisuk, T. (1979). A palynological study of the tribe Ranunculeae. Opera Botanica, 48, 1–74.Google Scholar
  123. Schloemer-Jäger, A. (1958). Alttertiäre Pflanzen aus Flössen der Brögger-Halbinsel Spitzbergens. Palaeontographica B, 104, 39–103.Google Scholar
  124. Schorn, H. E., Erwin, D. M. (2000). The impression record history and ecological diversification of Pseudotsuga Carriere (Pinaceae) in western North America during the later half of the Cenozoic. Abstract F-4, Botany 2000, 6–10 Aug 2000, Oregon Convention Center, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  125. Schorn, H. E., & Gooch, N. L. (1994). Amelanchier hawkinsae sp. nov. (Rosaceae, Maloideae) from the Middle Miocene of Stewart Valley, Nevada, and a review of the genus in the Nevada Neogene. PaleoBios, 16, 1–17.Google Scholar
  126. Shen, C. -F. (1992). A monograph of the genus Fagus Tourn. ex L. (Fagaceae). Ph.D. thesis, The City University of New York, 390 pp.Google Scholar
  127. Shilin, S. G. (1974). The Tertiary floras of the plateau Ustjurk (Transcaspia). Leningrad: Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 122 pp.Google Scholar
  128. Shwareva, I. J. (1983). The Miocene flora of the Predkarpatye (in Russian). Kyiv: Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. 160 pp.Google Scholar
  129. Sigurðsson, O. (1975). Steingervingar í Selárgili í Fnjóskadal. Týli, 5, 1–6.Google Scholar
  130. Símonarson, L. A. (1988). Kínarauðviður (Metasequoia) frá Súgandafirði. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 58, 21–26.Google Scholar
  131. Símonarson, L. A. (1991). Hikkoría frá Tröllatunga. Náttúrufræðingurinn, 60, 144.Google Scholar
  132. Sivak, J. (1978). Histoire du genre Tsuga en Europe d’aprés l’étude des grains de pollen actuels et fossiles. Paleobiologie Continentale, 9, 1–226.Google Scholar
  133. Smiley, C. J., & Huggins, L. M. (1981). Pseudofagus idahoensis n. gen. et sp. (Fagaceae) from the Miocene Clarkia Flora of Idaho. American Journal of Botany, 68, 741–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Solomon, A. M. (1983a). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy of white oaks in eastern North America. American Journal of Botany, 70, 481–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Solomon, A. M. (1983b). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy of red oaks in eastern North America. American Journal of Botany, 70, 495–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Stafford, P. J. (1995). The Northwest European pollen flora, 53. Ulmaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 88, 25–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stone, D. E., & Broome, C. R. (1975). Juglandaceae A. Rich. Ex Kunth. World Pollen and Spore Flora, 4, 1–35.Google Scholar
  138. Straus, A. (1992). Die oberpliozäne Flora von Willershausen. In V. Wilde, K.-H. Lengtat, S. Ritzkowski (Eds.), Berichte der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Hannover, 134: 7–115.Google Scholar
  139. Sveshnikova, I. N. (1984). A new genus of the family Taxodiaceae from the Middle Miocene of Iceland. Yearbook of the All-Union Palaeontological Society, 1, 263–269.Google Scholar
  140. The Gymnosperm Database (2010). http://www.conifers.org/ (last accessed October 12, 2010).
  141. Thorarinsson, S. (1963). The Svínafell layers plant-bearing interglacial sediments in Öræfi, southeast Iceland. In A. Löve & D. Löve (Eds.), North Atlantic Biota and their History (pp. 377–389). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  142. Tian, X., Guo, Z.-H., & Li, D.-Z. (2002). Phylogeny of Aceraceae based on ITS and trnL-F data sets. Acta Botanica Sinica, 44, 714–724.Google Scholar
  143. Van Leeuwen, P., Punt, W., & Hoen, P. P. (1988). The Northwest European pollen flora, 57. Polygonaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 57, 81–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Velenovský, J. (1881). Die Flora aus den ausgebrannten tertiären Letten von Vršovic bei Laun. Abhandlungen der königlichen böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Classe, VI, 11, 1–56.Google Scholar
  145. Verbeek-Reuvers, A. A. M. L. (1977). The Northwest European Pollen Flora, 9. Saxifragaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 24, 31–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Walther, H. (1972). Studien über tertiäre Acer Mitteleuropas. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, 19, 1–309.Google Scholar
  147. Wiegrefe, S. J., Sytsma, K. J., & Guries, R. P. (1994). Phylogeny of Elms (Ulmus, Ulmaceae): Molecular evidence for a sectional classification. Systematic Botany, 19, 590–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wilmot-Dear, M. (1985). Ceratophyllum revised: A study in fruit and leaf variation. Kew Bulletin, 40, 243–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Windisch, P. (1886). Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Tertiärflora von Island. Inaugural-Dissertation behufs Erlangung der philosophischen Doctorwürde der Hohen philosophischen Facultät der Universität Leipzig. Halle a. d. S.: Gebauer-Schwetschke’sche Buchdruckerei. 52 pp.Google Scholar
  150. Wolfe, J. A. (1966). Tertiary plants from the Cook Inlet region, Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, 398-B, 1–31.Google Scholar
  151. Yakubovskaya, T. A. (1975). A new Miocene beech species from the European regions of the USSR. Journal of Paleontology, 9, 527–535.Google Scholar
  152. Zhilin, S. G. (1980). Notes on systematics of fossil plants. Myricaceae (Systematics and evolution of higher plants (in Russian), pp. 9–20). Leningrad: Nauka.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Denk
    • 1
    Email author
  • Friðgeir Grímsson
    • 2
  • Reinhard Zetter
    • 2
  • Leifur A. Símonarson
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PalaeobotanySwedish Museum of Natural HistoryStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of PalaeontologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  3. 3.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland

Personalised recommendations